The paper presents the work performance analysis of timber harvesting with the use of Highlander harvester produced by KONRAD Forsttechnik GmbH. The analysis was performed based on the timing of the working day. We also assessed the organization of the machine operation in the research area and its functional capability. The study was conducted in Miçdzylesie Forest Department, Nowu Wieś Forestry in fresh mixed mountain forest, where the machine acquired spruce. Timing was perfonned based on the registration of the machine operation on a video camera and the measurements of collected assortment. Based on the results of measurements it was found that organization of the machine operation was not the best. A one-shift work system and short duration of a shift caused that the effective working time occupied only 67.9% of the shift time (about 4 hours). This resulted in reduction of the operating perfonnance on a working day which was only 12,7 m3·h−1, while an effective high-efficiency was 18.7 m3·h−1.
The article presents analysis of operation of Fao Far 6840 mini harvester for machine wood harvesting. Analysis was made based on working day timing. The investigations were carried out on the area of Lubliniec Forest Inspectorate, Bór Forestry on the habitat forest site − fresh mixed forest where pine wood was obtained with the use of a harvester. Timing was carried out based on the registration of the exploitation time of a harvester with the use of a video camera and stopwatch and measurements of the obtained size grade. Based on the obtained results low values of performance in the exploitation change time 9.61 m3·h−1, and effective performance 12.14 m3·h−1 were reported. Low machine performance was affected mainly by conditions of harvesting, low log volume (at the average 0.62 m3) and concentration of trees. The head structure (applied feed system), weak work organization (short time of a single 6 hour shift) and weak skills of the machine operator were additional factors that reduced the performance
The paper presents analysis of efficiency of the logging unit comprising Belarus 820 farm tractor and PD80 logging trailer equipped with Ryś-1 crane. Analysis was made based on the working day timing. The unit logged 1- meter long tree pieces (hornbeam, oak, birch) from the area where material for logging was distributed irregularly on the entire felling site. Unfavourable atmospheric conditions were reported during the working day (a thick layer of snow, low temperature, not frozen soil) which could have influenced the unit operation performance. Despite that the performance of the logging unit was comparable to similar logging units described in the literature. Determined coefficient of use of the operating time of the machine K02 was 0.93, coefficient of use of the shift working time K04 − 0.9, coefficient of use of the shift exploitation time K07 − 0.8. Hourly performance in the shift exploitation time was 4.98 m3·h−1, efficiency in the shift working time W02 − 4.80 m3·h−1 and performance in the general shift time W07 − 4.30 m3·h−1.
The paper presents research on influence of nursery soil compaction, composed of peat (90%) and perlite (10%), on the growth of seedlings of Pinus sylvestris grown in containers. Polyethylene nursery are containers used for the seedling production. These containers were filled with three different densities of the peat and perlite substrate (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g·cm-3). During the experiment, nursery containers were initially placed in a plastic tent for a period of two months, and then for three months further months in an open nursery field. Growth measurements for individual plants were the length of shoots and the root system, root collar diameter, root and shoot dry weight and photosynthetic rate. There was a relationship between the extent of compaction of the soil substrate and all analyzed growth parameters of seedlings. A more compact substrate adversely affected on the number of grown seedlings and their length but positively influenced the dry mass of pine seedlings.
For the period from the 1st of May to the 30th of October 2014, the water balance for Scots pine, Norway spruce, Pedunculate oak and European beech seedlings in a plantation setting was analysed. The experiment was conducted at the container nursery in the Rudy Raciborskie Forest District, Poland. Water was supplied by natural rainfall as well as a by small-droplet irrigation system and two automatic weather stations combined with 32 rain collectors were used to monitor rainfall throughout this research. Rain gauges were located 25 cm above the metal pallets and 10 cm below the nursery containers. An average of 987 mm∙m−2 of water reached the plantation, of which 53% were provided by the irrigation system. Most water was supplied to the oak field, whereas least was given to the spruce plantations and the irrigation water amounted to 535 liters and 422 liters per square meter, respectively. The amount of water percolating through the substrate was approximately 50–65%, depending on the tree species. An average sum of evapotranspiration at the container nursery was estimated to amount to 520 mm∙m−2 during the growth season leading to a total water balance of +463 mm.
This study explores the use of fully automatic monitoring system of peat moss substrate moisture under pine seedlings at Rudy Raciborskie forest nursery in the Silesian Upland. A brand new multipoint system for this study was created. The multichannel electronic recorder MPI-DN Metronic was the main part of the project. Twelve HD3910.2 probes (three electrodes) for volumetric water content measurement were used in a distributed configuration. Modbus RTU protocols were used for data transmission and the results were archived into an internal memory. One probe delivers 1440 measurements a day. Based on the average substrate moisture data from the field, the recorder controls the watering system according to the precisely defined parameters. Proper placement of sensors in the field allows for accurate analysis of the temporal and spatial variability of peat moss substrate moisture. Results of the statistical analysis have confirmed that the peat moss moisture is significantly differentiated within the homogeneous production field of the forest seedlings. The study findings suggest that irrigation systems should be adapted to specific situation of substrate moisture at the nursery surfaces aimed at optimised water management.