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Open access

Grzegorz Bieszczad and Mariusz Kastek

Measurement of Thermal Behavior of Detector Array Surface with the Use of Microscopic Thermal Camera

Modern infrared cameras are constructed with two main types of infrared detectors: photon detectors and thermal detectors. Because of economic reasons, vast numbers of modern thermal cameras are constructed with the use of infrared microbolometric detectors which belong to the group of thermal detectors. Thermal detectors detect incident infrared radiation by measuring changes of temperature on the surface of a special micro-bridge structure. Thermal detectors, like microbolometric detectors on one hand should be sensitive to changing temperature to accurately measure incoming infrared radiation from the observed scene, on the other hand there are many other phenomena that change the temperature of the detector and influence the overall response of the detector. In order to construct an accurate infrared camera, there is a need to evaluate these phenomena and quantify their influence. In the article the phenomenon of self heating due to the operation of the readout circuit is analyzed on an UL 03 19 1 detector. The theoretical analysis is compared with the results of conducted measurements. Measurements with a type SC7900VL thermographic camera were performed to measure the thermodynamic behavior of the UL 03 19 1 detector array.

Open access

Mariusz Kastek, Tadeusz Piątkowski and Piotr Trzaskawka

Infrared Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer as the Stand-Off Gas Detection System

The article presents the detection of gases using an infrared imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS). The Telops company has developed the IFTS instrument HyperCam, which is offered as a short- or long-wave infrared device. The principle of HyperCam operation and methodology of gas detection has been shown in the paper, as well as theoretical evaluation of gas detection possibility. Calculations of the optical path between the IFTS device, cloud of gases and background have been also discussed. The variation of a signal reaching the IFTS caused by the presence of a gas has been calculated and compared with the reference signal obtained without the presence of a gas in IFTS's field of view. Verification of the theoretical result has been made by laboratory measurements. Some results of the detection of various types of gases has been also included in the paper.

Open access

Henryk Madura, Mariusz Kastek, Tomasz Sosnowski and Tomasz Orżanowski

Pyrometric Method of Temperature Measurement with Compensation for Solar Radiation

Outdoor remote temperature measurements in the infrared range can be very inaccurate because of the influence of solar radiation reflected from a measured object. In case of strong directional reflection towards a measuring device, the error rate can easily reach hundreds per cent as the reflected signal adds to the thermal emission of an object. As a result, the measured temperature is much higher than the real one. Error rate depends mainly on the emissivity of an object and intensity of solar radiation. The position of the measuring device with reference to an object and the Sun is also important. The method of compensation of such undesirable influence of solar radiation will be presented. It is based on simultaneous measurements in two different spectral bands, shor-twavelength and long-wavelength ones. The temperature of an object is derived from long-wavelength data only, whereas the short-wavelength band, the corrective one, is used to estimate the solar radiation level. Both bands were selected to achieve proportional changes of the output signal due to solar radiation. Knowing the relation between emissivity and solar radiation levels in both spectral bands, it is possible to reduce the measurement error several times.

Open access

Marek Chmiel, Mariusz Kastek, Dariusz Całus and Krystian Szczepański


The range of applications in which remote detection of chemical compounds is used extends from monitoring of technological processes through diagnostics of industrial installation and environmental control up to military applications. The methods and the devices used for the passive detection of selected gases are presented. The change in the signal reaching the camera caused by the presence of gas was calculated. The successful detection can be achieved if the absorption (or emission) of a gas cloud, located between object (background) and the camera, causes signal change greater or equal to noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of the camera.

Open access

Pawel Baranowski, Krzysztof Damaziak, Jerzy Malachowski, Lukasz Mazurkiewicz, Henryk Polakowski, Tadeusz Piatkowski and Mariusz Kastek


This article presents the validation process of a brake FE model by means of temperature measured on a special stand using infrared technology. Unlike many other publications, the authors try to show the interaction between measurement technology and numerical modeling rather than only nice, perfectly correlated graphs. Some difficulties in choosing and using validation parameters are also pointed out and discussed. Finally, results of FE analyses are compared with measured data, followed by explanation of applied numerical technology and estimation of validation process effectiveness.