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  • Author: Marina Deljanin Ilić x
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Perforation of the Right Ventricle as a Complication of Pericardiocentesis: A Case report

Summary

Pericardial effusion represents the accumulation of larger amounts of fluid in the pericardial cavity. If not timely diagnosed and adequately treated, it can lead to cardiac tamponade. The treatment of pericardial effusion includes primarily the use of drugs like aspirin, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and/or colchicine followed by invasive procedures such as pericardiocentesis or pericardiectomy. Pericardiocentesis complications are extremely rare but very serious especially in the case of the rupture of the right ventricle or the coronary arteries. Patient S.V, born in 1938, from Svrljig, was examined because of suffocating and swollen shin. The medical reports showed that the patient previously had had a permanent pacemaker implanted and that he had undergone a triple coronary artery bridging. Medical reports also showed that two months before the examination he was hospitalized due to pericardial effusion at the reference institution. The ultrasonographic examination registered large circular effusion with the motion of the right ventricle and the patient underwent urgent pericardiocentesis. During pericardiocentesis, the rupture of the right ventricle occurred and the patient was sent to the cardiac surgery clinic where he had catheter extraction performed. The control ultrasound examination of the heart showed no pericardial effusion, and no signs of damage to the right ventricle.

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Aortic Dissection - The Role of Echocardiography in Emergency Unit: Case Report

Summary

Aortic dissection is a quite rare but serious condition, often associated with a very high mortality rate; it is manifested by sudden chest pain and acute hemodynamic compromise. In the presented review, a case of an ascending aortic dissection with the lethal outcome is been shown. A healthy man with no past history of illness suddenly felt acute excruciating chest pain which was radiating to the back. A quick diagnosis, ideally within one hour of manifestation, heart auscultation and echocardiography are the key to aortic dissection recovery.

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Case Report of the Patient with Acute Myocardial Infarction: “From Flatline to Stent Implantation”

Summary

Asystole is a rare primary manifestation in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and survival during cardiac arrest as the consequence of asystole is extremely low. The aim of our paper is to illustrate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and rare and severe form of cardiac arrest - asystole. A very short time between cardiac arrest in acute myocardial infarction, which was manifested by asystole, and the adequate CPR measures that have been taken are of great importance for the survival of our patient.

After successful reanimation, the diagnosis of anterior wall AMI with ST segment elevation was established. The right therapeutic strategy is certainly the early primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). In less than two hours, after recording the “flatline” and successful reanimation, the patient was in the catheterization laboratory, where a successful PPCI of LAD was performed, after emergency coronary angiography. In the further treatment course of the patient, the majority of risk factors were corrected, except for smoking, which may be the reason for newly discovered lung tumor disease. Early recognition and properly applied treatment of CPR can produce higher rates of survival.

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Could Lymphocyte Caspase-3 Activity Predict Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability?

Could Lymphocyte Caspase-3 Activity Predict Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability?

Apoptotic cell death may play a critical role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, especially in those developing on the basis of atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to compare the activity of caspase-3 in different forms of ischemic heart disease and to correlate caspase-3 activity with inflammatory and lipid markers as well as risk factors. This enzyme activity was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 30 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), 27 with unstable angina (USAP), 39 with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 27 healthy volunteers by a colorimetric commercially available ELISA method. In the SAP group caspase-3 activity was 0.093±0.036 μmol/mg protein, in patients with STEMI it was 0.110±0.062 μmol/mg protein, and both values were insignificantly higher in comparison with controls (0.092±0.022 μmol/mg protein). In PBMC of USAP patients caspase-3 activity (0.122±0.062 μmol/mg protein) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the control group. In SAP patients caspase-3 activity showed a significant positive correlation with triglicerydes (p<0.05). Caspase-3 activity may be a valid parameter for assessing the atherosclerotic plaque activity, and a new target for therapeutic intervention.

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Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency as a Complication of Radical Surgical Treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot

Summary

Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanogenic congenital heart defect. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs, ECG examination, ultrasound examination of the heart, additional imaging methods and invasive testing. The therapeutic approach to the patient with tetralogy is complex and based on conservative and radical methods. Patients who have not undergone a radical surgical intervention have a poor prognosis, whereas the prognosis is much better for patients who have been operated. The most common complication of the surgical treatment is the pulmonary valve insufficiency which usually requires reintervention, as was the case with our patient.

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Rehabilitation of a Female Patient after Corrective Surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot

Summary

Herein we present a 25-year-old female patient with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). This congenital heart defect is not very common, but it is the most common one among cyanotic heart defects. Treatment of the patients with TF is surgical, with palliative or curative (corrective) intent. Our patient underwent palliative surgery, definitive correction, and another surgery for pulmonary valve insufficiency. During cardiovascular rehabilitation, the patient was rhythmically stable, with excellent tolerance of physical exertion. Bearing in mind that this was a young female person who previously had had two spontaneous abortions, pregnancy was not absolutely contraindicated, although spontaneous abortion and pregnancy complications were more common in these patients.

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Significance of Echocardiography in the Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Patients Receiving Combined Adjuvant Treatment with Anthracyclines and Trastuzumab / Značaj ehokardiografije u proceni funkcije leve komore kod bolesnica na adjuvantnoj terapji (kombinovana terapija antraciklinima i trastuzumabom)

Abstract

The application of anthracycline and trastuzumab in adjuvant breast cancer treatment approach has significantly improved the survival of patients, but also carries the risk of cardiotoxicity that is manifested by reducing the ejection fraction of the heart.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cumulative anthracycline dose in combination therapy with trastuzumab on the left ventricular ejection fraction, and the influence of the time interval for starting the treatment with trastuzumab.

The study included a group of 80 breast cancer patients (aged 28 to 75 years) who underwent the therapy with anthracyclines (IV-VI cycles) with the continuation of trastuzumab therapy for a period of one year. Ejection fraction at the end of completing the treatment period (VI anthracycline cycles and trastuzumab) was significantly lower in 68 (93%) patients compared to the value at the beginning of the study (68.2% ± 6.06 to 62.1 ± 6.1%; p <0.0001; difference 6.1%). In five patients (anthracyclines and trastuzumab IV cycles) a decrease of 7.1% EF; p = 0.0043 was registered compared to the baseline values. The reduction in the ejection fraction was highest in patients in whom the trastuzumab therapy was initiated one month after the last anthracycline therapy (7.33%), and lowest in the subgroup who started receiving the therapy after three months (5.31%).

In patients on cytostatic therapy, echocardiography proves the reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction, which is cumulative and dose-dependent, and it also proves that the shorter time interval between the last cycle of anthracycline and the initial trastuzumab treatment the more it is associated with a marked decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction.

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Acute Myocardial Infarction with an Initially Non–Diagnostic Electrocardiogram – Clinical Intuition is Crucial for Decision Making

Summary

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common cause of reduced cardiac capacity and functional status of a patient. Successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in acute coronary syndrome and appropriate, complex cardiovascular rehabilitation play a major role in preserving left ventricular function and improvement of prognosis and quality of patient’s life. The aim of this paper was to present a clinical course in a patient with acute myocardial infarction who did not have a classic ECG presentation in the form of ST-segment elevation. We showed that in everyday clinical work it is essential to timely recognize the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, make the proper diagnosis and perform right treatment strategy. The next step is cardiovascular rehabilitation program, which positive effects, in our patient, was achieved through the retrieval of functional capacity and correction of risk factors.

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The Association Between Obesity and Visit-to-visit Variability in Systolic Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study

Abstract

With the prevalence of obesity and all accompanying health risks, both prevention and health education, as well as identifying predictors for the development of obesity-related diseases are primary. Th e pathophysiological relationship between obesity and visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure (SBPV) has not been completely resolved. To investigate the association between obesity and SBPV in hypertensive patients. Th e prospective study comprised three visits was performed at the hypertension outpatient clinic during the follow up period of 22-months between March 2014 and January 2016. Th is study included 300 randomly selected hypertensive patients (average 67.76±9.84 years), who were divided in groups of obese/non-obese examinees. SBPV was defined as the standard deviation (SD) from three values of SBP. Th e values of SBP and SBP-SD were significantly higher in the group of obese hypertensive patients than in the group of non-obese patients (126.67±8.22 vs 120.45±7.79 mmHg, 11.00±5.64 vs 7.34±3.96; p<0.01). Th e highest SBPV was recorded in the 4th quartile in obese patients (43.13±7.50 mmHg). Th ere was statistically stronger correlation between SBPV and BMI/Waist cirumferences (WC) (ρο=0.425/ ρο=0.356, p<0.01). During 22-months follow up there was a significant decrease of SBPV for 8.2 mmHg, BP for 31/8 mmHg, BMI for 3.8 kg/m2, WC for 10 cm and body weight for 8.24 kg. During 22-months follow-up, reduction of body weight was associated with reduction of blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients. Persistently decrease both body weight and long term visit-to-visit variability may explain lower cardiovascular risk in obese-related disease.

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Similarities and Differences in Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cerebral and Myocardial Ischemic Disease

Abstract

Ischemic heart disease and cerebral ischemia represent the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. The autors aimed to investigate differences and similarities in epidemiology and risk factors that could be found between both entities. In a retrospective sudy 403 patients were included and divided into two groups: group of 289 patients with history of myocardial infarction (AMI), and group of 114 patients with history of ischemic stroke (IS). All patients were evaluated for nonmodifiable risk faktors, which included age and sex, and modifiable, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, physical activity and smoking. Diff erences in some epidemiological aspects were also considered: occupation, marital status, alcohol consumption, exposure to stress. Patients with history of IS were significantly older then AMI patients (64.0 ± 9.9 vs 64.0 ± 9.9, p=0,028), with higher diastolic blood pressure (87,1 ± 10,2 vs 83,6 ± 10,4, p=0,003) and higher Sokolow-Lyon index in ECG, an also index of left ventricular hypertrophy (19,2 ± 9,1 vs 14,7 ± 6,5). Th ere were no significant differences between groups in the estimated body mass index and waist circumference. Differences between groups in stress exposure, occupation, alcohol consumption or physical activity were no significant. Patients in AMI group were more frequently male (199 (69%) vs 59 (52%), p=0,001), married (252 (87%) vs 88 (77%), p=0,037), smokers (162 (56%) vs 50 (44%), p=0,018) and with higher incidence od dyslipidemia (217 (75%) vs 73 (64%), p=0,019) compared with IS group. Incidence of arterial hypertension and diabetes was similar in both groups. Both entities share similar pathophysiological mechanisms and, consequently, main traditional risk factors. However, incidence of myocardial infarction increases with male sex, dyslipidemia, smoking and marital status, while incidense of ischemic stroke increases with age, higher diastolic blood pressure and also with ECG signs of left ventricular hypertrophy.

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