Consumption taxes have an important place in the tax systems of modern states. They provide a large amount of revenue for the state budget. However, they are generous, but they are very regressive. It is a bad characteristic. The regressivity problem of the tax burden implies that the consumption tax is burdensome for the population with lower income. They pay similar tax rate as people with high income. The aim of this paper is to point to the existence of the problem of regressivity in underdeveloped and developed countries. This paper analyses the possibilities of reducing this problem in order to satisfy the principle of fairness in taxation.
Changes in the world of technology have enabled banks to use new channels for distribution of banking services to its clients. With the appearance of of smart phones, WEB mobile banking is developed,and it provides a possibility for greater integration between the bank and the client. WEB mobile banking is increasingly gaining in importance, especially in developed countries, while this process in our country is much slower. The aim of this paper is to point out the benefits that WEB mobile banking offer to users, but also to point out its weak presence in the Nisava District and Serbia in general. Also the identification of the main reasons forweak presence of mobile banking in our region, aims to point out in which way can in the future this banking be quickly disseminated among users. In order to achieve the defined objectives, the authors used descriptive method, method of compilation, comparison, deduction and induction and statistical method which is used for testing of independence between variables and calculation of coefficient of contingency.
The efficiency of channels of monetary transmission varies from country to country and is conditioned by a number of factors that determine the economic and financial system of a country. In order to achieve the set monetary policy objectives, а central bank takes certain measures and employs instruments of monetary policy. Those instruments, however, act indirectly and with a certain lag. Due to these limitations in monetary policy effects, the analysis of the monetary transmission is of essence in every country as it enables its designers to determine an optimum monetary regime. In this paper, an analysis of monetary transmission in the Republic of Serbia is made using the Vector autoregressive model (VAR model). The research conducted is significant due to a current issue of the impact of monetary policy on actual economic trends, both in the developed and developing countries. On the basis of the research it is concluded that, in the time period under observation, the biggest impact on the fluctuations in industrial production in Serbia is that of monetary aggregate, whereas the biggest impact on the fluctuation in prices is that of key policy rate movements. The results of the analysis provide guidelines to monetary authorities to take necessary steps to shorten a lag period and eliminate restrictions in transmitting monetary impulses into real economic values.
The policy led by a large number of developing countries, with the aim of increasing indirect taxes, has opened the issue of Value Added Tax (VAT) performance. Reforms of tax systems of transition countries generally involve an increase in standard rates in order to increase VAT, which is the main source of public revenues. In such a way, developing countries determine the VAT performance and the amount of revenue that could be collected by indirect taxation. Theoretical analyses of standard rates and other factors that have reflections on the VAT collection efficiency explicitly prove that there are different ways to improve the efficiency of VAT collection, and exclude an increase in the standard rate. An increase in the standard rate provides a balance of negative effects, which can be blurred by recorded tax revenues. The subject of this paper is an analysis of the factors that influence the efficiency of VAT collection in Serbia. The main objective of the paper is to examine the impact of the change in the standard rate, which is the result of the reforms carried out in 2012, on the performance of VAT. Regression analysis was applied to the data series for the period 2005-2016.The results show that the change in the standard rate had a statistically significant negative impact on VAT performance. Our analysis also indicates that the economic growth rate has reflections on VAT collection. A strong positive correlation between the economic growth rate and VAT performance was calculated.
The goal is to examine the level of fiscal stress in the Republic of Serbia and to investigate whetherit suggests a crisis of public debt. The empirical analysis of annual data has been done for the period 2007 to 2014, in two cases: (i) charging indicators of the vulnerability boundaries to the fiscal crisis using the signal approach (ii) an assessment of whether the public debt is reduced at a satisfactory pace by applying the criterion of the operationalisation of debt. The resulting composite indicator points to a crisis of public debt in the Republic of Serbia. The investigation of fiscal and macrofinancial variables showed that the public sector and private sector (macro-financial side) have over-consumption followed the process of the accumulation of the public debt. The outputs suggest that the level of the public debt in 2016 is above the benchmarks, which means that there is a violation of the operationalisation of the debt criterion in 2014.
The importance of certain tax forms for the economy of any country is confirmed by the fact that they can be used to impact on the achievement of fiscal aims as they play a significant role when it comes to their share in a total amount of public revenue of certain countries. Another important characteristic of taxes is that they can affect the trends of gross domestic product (GDP) as one of the most important economic indicators of achieved development of a national economy. It is for this reason that we must point out that the authors will pay special attention to determining the impact that corporate income tax has on trends of gross domestic product in the Republic of Serbia and their interdependency. This will provide an answer to a question whether corporate income taxes have a positive effect on gross domestic product trends and what is its relation with this indicator. On the basis of quantitative research, through the application of regression analysis, the authors will confirm or refute the hypothesis concerning this problem. Finally, we will reach a conclusion which will offer answers to questions related to the impact of this tax type tax on the gross domestic product trends, the extent of the impact and its nature – whether it has a positive or a negative effect on gross domestic product trends in the Republic of Serbia