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  • Author: Marija Gjorgjievska x
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Herein, we present a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV-detection for the direct determination of diazepam in whole blood and serum that can be used for monitoring diazepam levels in clinical samples analysis. The isolation of diazepam and the internal standard bromazepam from serum and whole blood samples was performed using solid phase extraction method with RP select B cartridges. The analytes were separated employing a reversed phase C8 column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1 % (V/V) triethylamine in water (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (63:37, V/V). UV detection was carried out at 240 nm. Linearity was achieved in the range from 10.0-1000.0 ng/ml for serum and whole blood. The method was applied to spiked and real biological samples after an oral administration of 10 mg diazepam. In conclusion, the proposed method is simple, rapid and provides efficient clean-up of the complex biological matrix and high recovery of diazepam.


Introduction: Prostate carcinoma is the most frequent malign neoplasm among men with an ever-growing incidence rate. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript leads to the androgen induction of ERG proto-oncogenes expression, representing a high presence of oncogenes alteration among prostate tumour cells.

Aim: The aim of this research was to detect and evaluate theTMPRSS2-ERG fuse transcript in the tissues of patients with prostate cancer, and establish a base of material of these samples for further genetic examination.

Materials and methods: The research was a prospective clinical study that involved and focused on random sampling of 101 patients (62 with prostate cancer-study group and 39 with benign changes in the prostate-control group). Real time PCR analysis for detection of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript in prostate tissue was performed and also data from the histopathology results of tissues were used, as well as data for the level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in blood.

Results: TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript was detected in 20 out of 62 (32.2%) patients with prostate carcinoma and among no patients with benign changes whatsoever. There were no significant differences between patients with/without detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion related to Gleason score. Among 50%, in the study group this score was greater than 7 per/for Median IQR=7 (6-8). Significant difference was recognized, related to the average value of PSA in favour of significantly higher value of PSA in the study group with prostate cancer, but there was also no significant difference between samples with prostate cancer who were with/without detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript related to PSA level.

Discussion: The results from this research are in accordance with the values and results from analyses done in several research centres and oncological institutes.

Conclusion: The positive findings in small scale studies encourage the implementation of larger scale studies that will be enriched with results of genetic transcript in blood and urine and will define the positive diagnostic meaning of the TMPRSS-ERG fusion transcript.


The active metabolite of azathioprine, 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) is the main component responsible for the immunosuppressive effect in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the concentration of 6-thioguanine nucleotide and disease activity, azathioprine-related adverse effects and time duration of treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Thirty-four patients were included in this study. Type of disease, gender, time duration of therapy and adverse effects were recorded. Metabolite concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.

Twenty-one percent of patients have experienced an adverse effect, with leucocytopenia most commonly occurring (42.9%). More adverse effects were registered when patients were treated with azathioprine in a period of less than 3 months in comparison to the group of patients that have been under therapy between 3-12 months and more than 12 months (p˂0.05). Most of the patients that presented any adverse effect had high 6-TGN concentration (>450 pmol/8x108 Er). The mean value of 6-TGN metabolite concentration in IBD patients treated with azathioprine was 437.46 pmol/8x108 Er ± 198.82 pmol/8x108. The time duration of azathioprine treatment did not have any significant impact on the achieved 6-TGN concentration (p>0.05).Twenty patients (58.9%) had achieved remission after therapy initiation with azathioprine.

More alertness is recommended to clinicians towards patients in the first 3 months of the therapy. Our study demonstrated that higher 6-TGN concentration is associated with azathioprine toxicity.