Amenity Migration in the Context of Landscape-Ecology Research
Amenity migration is a specific type of migration that is not economically motivated. Rather it is brought about by a desire to render more valuable the natural or socio-cultural environment of the target territory, and it is often directed from metropolitan to rural areas. This phenomenon has been strongly supported by the spread and growing accessibility of mass information technologies. As with any other kind of migration, it can lead to changes in the spatial distribution of human activities in the target territory. Under specific conditions, it can become one of the driving societal forces determining the socio-economic development of a given rural region. In the European context, amenity migration appears to be in its early stages of development. As such, it has been the subject of theoretical debate rather than being documented by empirical evidence. Amenity migration can be seen as an ambiguous phenomenon. Optimistic hypotheses claim that it could support local development of rural space and thus diminish the disproportionate development of particular regions and that it can maintain or even improve these region's environmental and cultural quality. On the other hand, it can also lead to a massive invasion of urban behavioural patterns into rural areas, making them culturally uniform. Tried and tested GIS methods exist for identifying a landscape's potential for amenity migration. The use of qualitative and quantitative techniques is a useful and progressive approach to landscape ecological research. We can expect further progress in the methods used to study amenity migration and for evaluating rural development within a landscape context following further research on amenity migrants, which will take place over the coming years.
The main objective of this article is to evaluate spatial differentiation in the Pilsen region in the Czech Republic, to create a typology of territorial units, and to evaluate the potential for development and possible threats to development in relation to individual territorial types. To this end, municipal statistical indicators pertaining to population, employment, and economy, were gathered from each of the given territories. The Voronoi map technique was applied to interpolate the values of selected indicators. The typology was created using one of the multivariate statistical methods, namely, the cluster analysis. Furthermore, typological regions and strategies for their development were created.
This study is focused on the changing of areas of water bodies in selected villages of the Pilsen Region (Czechia). We researched several different types of rural settlements and three time horizons with the help of old maps, orthophoto maps and GIS tools. To capture the influence of their location within the urban system, we chose 15 places from four categories (inner suburban area, outside suburban area, rural area, periphery rural area) depending on their distance to the core of the Pilsen agglomeration. There is no significant change in the amount of water bodies between the first reference period (1838-1839) and the second period (1957-1963) in the selected settlements. However, the third period (2013-2015) is characterized by the emergence of a large number of small water bodies - swimming pools and garden ponds. Based on the results of our research we identified the declining importance of public water bodies in some of the settlements. However, we have identified a notable prevalence of garden ponds which have a more positive ecological impact than pools. The proportion of private water bodies (covered and uncovered pools and garden ponds) in the total area of water bodies in the rural settlements in most cases is less than 20%, in the suburban settlements up to 100%. Peripheral settlements have a below-average share of these water bodies. The difference between the number of pools in different settlements is related to the proportion of newly built houses there. Although there are relatively fewer pools in rural settlements, the difference compared to the situation in suburban settlements is not pronounced due to the change in lifestyle in rural areas and the change in functions of some villages to recreational areas. Influence of pools on water consumption is dependent on the individual exchange technology of water in swimming pools. Filling of the pool before the season can overload the capacity of the local water supply.
Migration trends in the Czech Republic after 1990 are discussed in this paper. To evaluate the migration trends, the databases of immigrants and emigrants from the Czech Statistical Office from 1990 to 2010, are used. While migration from rural areas to urban areas prevailed in the past, after 1990 the direction changed: the population in rural areas with good natural and socio-cultural environments has been increasing due to migration. Small municipalities have a positive migration balance. We can conclude that these trends could be influenced primarily by social and environmental problems in cities, the increase in automobile use and the development of communication technologies, the migration of pensioners who settle in second homes, and the changing residential preferences of people and entrepreneurs.