Clinical entities of food allergy in allergic rhinitis patients due to IgE-sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are well described, but less data are available regarding allergic reactions to foods containing aeroallergens, either due to food contamination, such as oral mite anaphylaxis, or due to their natural presence in the edible products, such as pollen grains in honey and bee products. There are some potential risks for allergic rhinitis subjects due to ingestion of food products containing domestic mite, insect, fungal and pollen allergens. The knowledge of these risks is useful for the allergists and ENT specialists, especially in the context of climate changes with warmer periods facilitating mite growth in flours, and of increase use of phytotherapy and apitherapy products containing pollen grains.
Polcalcins are highly cross-reactive calcium-binding allergen components specifically expressed in pollen from trees, grasses and weeds. The grass allergen component rPhl p 7, a recombinant non-glycosylated calcium-binding protein of 2-EF-hand type, is the most cross-reactive polcalcin and may be used as a polcalcin biomarker of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Polcalcin sensitization, which appears to be linked to geographical factors, level and time of pollen exposure, has to be assessed in allergic rhinitis patients with multiple pollen sensitizations and may be useful for a better targeted prescription of allergen immunotherapy.
Natural by-products from vegetable oil industries and spent edible oils from domestic or public food spaces should be recycled to obtain new added value products. Present paper proposed a technical solution for complete valorisation of inedible oilseeds or spent edible oils into bioproducts for nutrition and protection of plants cultivated in conservative organic agrosystems. Pressed cakes resulted from mechanical cold extraction of mustard oil contain residual oil and bioactive compounds which were released using an enzymatic cocktail 1:1 cellulase with proteases coupled with azeotropic solvents into a single Soxhlet extractor. From mustard meal, a solid fraction with glycerol derivatives of fatty acids (56.23% oleate and 17.47% linoleate) decanted from syrup (41.78% xylopyranoside and 48.48% trilinolein) and from mustard cake (76.44% linoleate) in the supernatant, the same oligosaccharide (29.64%) and proteinates (30.18%) in the solid fraction. The total extract was simultaneously concentrated and converted into a bioactive potassium salt emulsion able to encapsulate insectofungicidal natural compounds as bioproducts with agronomical applications.
The IMM INVEST type of reimbursable financing is a top-up loan formula, materialized in the granting of bank loans granted to micro-enterprises under the national legislation applicable to investments and working capital. In order to benefit from this financing, the wishing companies must go through two stages: a pre-contractual stage in which the registration on the electronic platform created for this purpose takes place, in which the companies must prove that they fall into the category of micro-enterprises and the contractual stage. In order to meet the eligibility conditions in the contractual phase, micro-enterprises will be subject to the verification of administrative compliance and the techniques and methods for verifying financial soundness. Beneficiaries of such loans will benefit under the state aid scheme from various forms of government support materialized in supporting the costs of financing 100% from the state budget, until the end of 2020 with the possibility of extension, which will help them to re-launch itself from a financial and economic perspective.
Anthropometric Predictors of High Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Rural Population
Objective. To evaluate which anthropometric parameter better predicts the high risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) in a rural population. Material and Method. 254 subjects were enrolled. We measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC) and calculated body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and neck circumference/height ratio (NC/Height). The risk of OSA was assessed by using Berlin Questionnaire. Results. Subjects with high risk of OSA had a significant higher BMI, WC, WHtR, NC, and NC/Height. A higher percentage of those with large WC (≥80cm and ≥94cm for women and men, respectively) (p<0.001), WHtR ≥0.5 (p<0.001), NC ≥40cm (p=0.004), NC/Height ratio ≥0.23 (p=0.002) had a high risk of OSA. Using ROC curves of anthropometric parameters studied we found that WHtR was the best predictor for high risk of OSA, with AUC of 0.760, 95% CI: 0.699 to 0.815. Conclusions. WHtR was the best predictor for high risk of OSA as assessed by the Berlin Questionnaire.
The prevalence of obesity is rising, becoming a medical problem worldwide. Also GERD incidence is higher in obese patients compared with normal weight, with an increased risk of 2.5 of developing symptoms and erosive esophagitis. Different treatment modalities have been proposed to treat obese patients, but bariatric surgery due to its complex interactions via anatomic, physiologic and neurohormonal changes achieved the best long-term results, with sustained weight loss and decrease of complications and mortality caused by obesity. The bariatric surgical procedures can be restrictive: laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or malabsorptive-restrictive such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These surgical procedures may influence esophageal motility and lead to esophageal complications like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and erosive esophagitis. From the literature we know that the RYGB can ameliorate GERD symptoms, and some bariatric procedures were finally converted to RYGB because of refractory reflux symptoms. For LAGB the results are good at the beginning, but some patients experienced new reflux symptoms in the follow-up period. Recently LSG has become more popular than other complex bariatric procedures, but some follow-up studies report a high risk of GERD after it. This article reviews the results published after LSG regarding gastroesophageal reflux and the mechanisms responsible for GERD in morbidly obese subjects.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with all features ofthe metabolic syndrome (MS). This strongly supports the notion that NAFLD may bethe hepatic manifestation of the MS. NAFLD is currently the most common cause ofabnormal liver function tests and affects approximatively 15-25% of the generalpopulation. NAFLD covers a spectrum of liver disease, from steatosis to nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Insulin resistance (IR) has centraletiologic roles in the development of MS and NAFLD, usually related to obesity. MSis frequently associated with chronic inflammation, having as principal mediatorsthe adipocytokines and free fatty acids (FFA), but also CRP, TNF-a and IL-6.Chronic inflammation results in more IR and lipolysis of adipose tissue triglyceridestores, in enhanced hepatic glucose and VLDL production. The steatotic liver isthought to be vulnerable to secondary injuries including adipocytokines,mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress which lead to hepatocellularinflammation and fibrosis.