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Open access

Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Justyna Góraj, Kensuke Miyamoto, Junichi Ueda and Marian Saniewski

ABSTRACT

Effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors: methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (morphactin IT 3456), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on elongation growth of the excised fourth internode of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.) cv. Apeldoorn were studied. After removal of flower bud, the continuing elongation of the excised fourth internode kept in water in normal or inverted position was observed, the elongation in inverted position being significantly higher than that in the normal position. On the other hand, the application of these inhibitors (0.2%, w/w in lanolin) in the place of removed flower bud substantially enhanced the elongation, the stimulation being much higher in the normal position than in the inverted one. When the inhibitors were applied in the middle or 1 cm from the base of the internode, the growth-promoting effect of these inhibitors was observed both in the upper and lower part of the internode, being greater in the upper part of the internode, regardless of the position of explants. Simultaneous application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.1%, w/w in lanolin) at the place of the removed flower bud in the normal position with morphactin, TIBA and NPA applied in the middle or 1 cm from the base of the excised internode greatly stimulated the elongation, whereas almost no growthpromoting effect of these inhibitors was observed, in comparison to IAA. On the contrary, when IAA was applied on the base of the excised internode in the inverted position, the growth was inhibited, compared to that with lanolin only. The inhibitory effect of auxin was eliminated by the simultaneous application of morphactin, TIBA and NPA placed in the middle of the excised internode. These results suggest that auxin levels in the excised internode regulated by auxin polar transport play a crucial role in the regulation of its elongation growth.

Open access

Justyna Góraj-Koniarska, Marian Saniewski, Ryszard Kosson, Wiesław Wiczkowski and Marcin Horbowicz

Abstract

In tomato fruits, chlorophyll, lycopene and ß-carotene are mostly responsible for the color. During ripening of tomato fruits, the color of the pericarp changes from green to red as chlorophyll is degraded and carotenoids accumulate. These changes are associated with an increase in respiration and ethylene production. Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants can be disturbed by herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-trifluoromethyl(phenyl)]- 4(1H)-pyridinone), which inhibits the activity of phytoene desaturase, an enzyme responsible for conversion of phytoene to phytofluene. Fluridone is also used as an inhibitor of biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones, and it reduces chlorophyll production in plants. In our research we studied the effect of fluridone on some physiological parameters, such as color, firmness, ethylene production, lycopene and chlorophyll content during ripening of the tomato fruit. Tomato plants cv. Altadena (Syngenta) were cultivated in a greenhouse in controlled temperature and both immature and mature fruits were used for the experiments, performed between August and November 2016. Fluridone at concentrations of 0.1% and 1.0% in lanolin paste was applied as a 2-3 mm stripe from the top to the base of tomato fruits, and as a control a stripe of lanolin was applied in the same way on the opposite side of the fruits. Fluridone at a concentration of 1.0% greatly inhibited lycopene accumulation in the pericarp of tomato fruits from the treated side. The measurements of fruit firmness have shown no significant differences between firmness of the part of the tomato fruits treated with fluridone, and the non-treated ones. Tomato fruits treated with fluridone produced amounts of ethylene similar to those found in control tissues on the opposite side of the same fruit. Fluridone delayed chlorophyll degradation in tomato fruits. The metabolic significance of these findings is discussed with the role of carotenogenesis inhibition in tomato fruit ripening.

Open access

Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Anna Jarecka Boncela, Justyna Góraj and Marian Saniewski

ABSTRACT

The knowledge about the role of jasmonates in ethylene production by pathogenic fungi is ambiguous. In this study, we describe the effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and gums formed in stone fruit trees on the growth and in vitro ethylene production by mycelium of Verticillium dahliae and Alternaria alternata. Methyl jasmonate at concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 μg·cm-3 inhibited the mycelium growth of V. dahliae and A. alternata, proportionally to the concentrations used. After 8 days of incubation, JA-Me at concentration of 500 μg·cm-3 limited the area of mycelium of these pathogens by 7-8 times but did not entirely inhibited the pathogen growth. Addition of gums produced by trees of cherry and peach to a medium containing 40 μg·cm-3 JA-Me did not influence the mycelium growth of V. dahliae, but gums of plum and apricot trees stimulated mycelium growth, in comparison to JA-Me only. Methyl jasmonate at concentrations of 2 and 40 μg·cm-3 stimulated the ethylene production by mycelium of V. dahliae and A. alternata. It is possible that methyl jasmonate stimulated ethylene production in mycelium of these pathogens through interaction with some fractions of galactans formed during hydrolysis of agar. The lack of interaction of JA-Me with polysaccharides of stone fruit trees gums concerning ethylene production was documented and it needs further explanation.

Open access

Marian Saniewski, Marcin Horbowicz and Sirichai Kanlayanarat

Abstract

Chemical compounds containing the tropone structure (2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), in their molecule, called troponoids, characterized by a seven-membered ring, are distributed in some plants, bacteria and fungi, although they are relatively rare. ß-Thujaplicin (2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), also known as hinokitiol, is a natural compound found in several plants of the Cupressaceae family. Besides hinokitiol, related compounds were identified in Cupressaceae trees. It has been demonstrated that hinokitiol and its derivatives have various biological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-ischemic, iron chelating and the inhibitory activity against polyphenol oxidase activity. Activity similar to ß-thujaplicin has tropolone and its derivatives, which are not present nature. Due to the high scientific and practical interest, synthetic ß-thujaplicin and other troponoids have been produced for many years. In this review, the major biological effects of troponoids, mostly ß-thujaplicin and tropolone, on tyrosinase and polyphenol oxidase activity, ethylene production, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities, and biotransformation of ß-thujaplicin by cultured plant cells are presented. Accumulation of ß-thujaplicin and related troponoids has been shown in cell cultures of Cupressus lusitanica and other species of Cupressaceae. The biosynthetic pathway of the troponoids in plants, bacteria and fungi has been also briefly described.

Open access

Justyna Góraj, Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak and Marian Saniewski

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) - auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, ethylene and their interaction with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) applied to roots of the whole plants Kalanchoe blossfeldiana on the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. The highest stimulation of anthocyanins synthesis was stated with application of JA-Me alone. In response to treatments with the other tested PGRs, the content of anthocyanins in roots of a whole plant was different depending on the concentration of the PGR when being applied alone or together with JA-Me. Auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at a concentration of 50 mg·L-1, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 5 mg·L-1 and abscisic acid (ABA) at 10 mg·L-1 induced anthocyanin accumulation with approximately 60-115% compared to the control while 24-epibrassinolid (epiBL), gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) had no effect on the anthocyanin accumulation. The simultaneous administration of the PGRs with JA-Me usually resulted in the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots in a manner similar to that caused by JA-Me. PGRs applied to isolated roots did not stimulate anthocyanin accumulation, except for the combination of JA-Me with 50 mg·L-1 IAA.

The results indicate that in K. blossfeldiana, the aboveground parts of the plant play an important role in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in roots.

Open access

Justyna Góraj-Koniarska, Anna Stochmal, Wiesław Oleszek, Jarosław Mołdoch and Marian Saniewski

Abstract

The influence of methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin accumulation in roots of Kalanchoe blossfediana plants was studied. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me), at a concentration of 5.0 to 40.0 mg.l−1, substantially increased anthocyanin accumulation in roots of intact plants, when it was applied as a solution under natural light conditions. The production of anthocyanin depended on the concentration of methyl jasmonate and the age of the plant. The stimulatory effect was higher in older plants of K. blossfeldiana than in younger ones. When leaves were removed methyl jasmonate slightly stimulated anthocyanin accumulation compared with intact plants. The obtained results indicate that leaves are necessary for the anthocyanin accumulation in the roots. In isolated roots methyl jasmonate did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanins in light conditions. Seven anthocyanins were documented in the roots of control plants and 8 anthocyanins in the roots of JA-Me treated ones. JA-Me increased the level of anthocyanins in roots of old K. blossfeldiana plants 6.8, 6.0 and 3.6-folds, after 4, 8 and 14-days of treatment, respectively.

Open access

Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Marian Saniewski, Justyna Góraj, Marcin Horbowicz, Kensuke Miyamoto and Junichi Ueda

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of sucrose on auxin-induced growth of stem excised from growing tulips and excised directly from cooled and not cooled bulbs, and on the growth of excised IV internode from growing plants in the presence of auxin. In all cases flower bud was replaced by IAA (indole-3- acetic acid, 0.1%, w/w in lanolin) and basal part of excised segments of stem was kept in distilled water or in solution of various sugars at different concentrations. IAA-induced growth of excised stems isolated from growing tulips was inhibited by sucrose at concentrations of 5.0% and 10.0%, but sucrose at 1.25% and 2.5% did not. Sucrose at all concentrations used evidently delayed senescence and increased chlorophyll contents in excised stems in the presence of IAA. Sucrose induced stiffing in isolated stems in the presence of IAA, and much less infective by pathogen in comparison to stem treated with IAA only. Mannitol and sorbitol at concentrations of 5.0% and 10.0% substantially inhibited IAA-induced growth of stem segments. Stem segments excised from cooled and not cooled tulip bulbs were more sensitive than those isolated from growing shoots due to application of sucrose and glucose; more inhibitory effect was observed. Sucrose at concentrations of 5.0% and 10.0% only slightly inhibited growth of IV internode treated with IAA and all concentrations of sucrose (1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%) substantially increased chlorophyll content. The possible mode of actions of sucrose interacting with auxin to regulate stem growth is also discussed although sugar response is complicated by the fact that plants have multiple sugar-response pathways.

Open access

Emilia Wilmowicz, Kamil Frankowski, Weronika Grzegorzewska, Jacek Kęsy, Agata Kućko, Mariusz Banach, Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska and Marian Saniewski

Abstract

Mechanical damage to scales of Hippeastrum × hybr. bulbs leads to the formation of phytoalexin-like compounds which redden the wounded tissue. The reaction is accompanied by an increase in methyl jasmonate (JA-Me). Applying 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid, a jasmonate biosynthesis inhibitor, decreases the level of endogenous jasmonates and decreases the plant's ability to produce the red pigment. Experimental results indicate that jasmonates are involved in the defense response to wounding in Hippeastrum, which is manifested in the formation of red pigment, a compound of chalcones and flavans with phytoalexin-like properties.