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Open access

Agnieszka Surowiak and Marian Brożek

Abstract

Settling velocity of particles, which is the main parameter of jig separation, is affected by physical (density) and the geometrical properties (size and shape) of particles. The authors worked out a calculation algorithm of particles settling velocity distribution for irregular particles assuming that the density of particles, their size and shape constitute independent random variables of fixed distributions. Applying theorems of probability, concerning distributions function of random variables, the authors present general formula of probability density function of settling velocity irregular particles for the turbulent motion. The distributions of settling velocity of irregular particles were calculated utilizing industrial sample. The measurements were executed and the histograms of distributions of volume and dynamic shape coefficient, were drawn. The separation accuracy was measured by the change of process imperfection of irregular particles in relation to spherical ones, resulting from the distribution of particles settling velocity.

Open access

Marian Brożek and Anna Młynarczykowska

Abstract

The flotation rate constant is the value characterizing the kinetics of cyclic flotation. In the statistical theory of flotation its value is the function of probabilities of collision, adhesion and detachment of particle from the air bubble. The particle - air bubble collision plays a key role since there must be a prior collision before the particle - air bubble adhesion happens. The probability of such an event to occur is proportional to the ratio of the particle diameter to the bubble diameter. When the particle size is given, it is possible to control the value of collision probability by means of the size of air bubble. Consequently, it is significant to find the effect of physical and physicochemical factors upon the diameter of air bubbles in the form of a mathematical dependence.

In the pneumo-mechanical flotation machine the air bubbles are generated by the blades of the rotor. The dispergation rate is affected by, among others, rotational speed of the rotor, the air flow rate and the liquid surface tension, depending on the type and concentration of applied flotation reagents.

In the proposed paper the authors will present the distribution of air bubble diameters on the grounds of the above factors, according to the laws of thermodynamics. The correctness of the derived dependences will be verified empirically.

Open access

Agnieszka Surowiak and Marian Brożek

Abstract

The particle settling velocity is the feature of separation in such processes as flowing classification and jigging. It characterizes material forwarded to the separation process and belongs to the so-called complex features because it is the function of particle density and size. i.e. the function of two simple features. The affiliation to a given subset is determined by the values of two properties and the distribution of such feature in a sample is the function of distributions of particle density and size. The knowledge about distribution of particle settling velocity in jigging process is as much important factor as knowledge about particle size distribution in screening or particle density distribution in dense media beneficiation.

The paper will present a method of determining the distribution of settling velocity in the sample of spherical particles for the turbulent particle motion in which the settling velocity is expressed by the Newton formula. Because it depends on density and size of particle which are random variable of certain distributions, the settling velocity is a random variable. Applying theorems of probability, concerning distributions function of random variables, the authors present general formula of probability density function of settling velocity for the turbulent motion and particularly calculate probability density function for Weibull’s forms of frequency functions of particle size and density. Distribution of settling velocity will calculate numerically and perform in graphical form.

The paper presents the simulation of calculation of settling velocity distribution on the basis of real distributions of density and projective diameter of particles assuming that particles are spherical.

Open access

Alona Nad and Marian Brożek

Abstract

The paper presents the results of analyze the particle size distribution function of comminution products of dolomitic type of copper ore. The breakage tests for single irregular particles were performed with using a hydraulic press device. The authors prepared five particle size fractions of each material, within ranges: 16-18 mm, 18-20 mm, 20-25 mm, 25-31,5 mm and 31-45 mm. The particle size distribution function of single-particle breakage test was calculated separately for each size fraction. In addition, the cumulative particle size distribution function for five particle size fractions was presented. In theoretical part the study of applied functions of particle size distribution for comminution a set of particles and models of crushing single particles was performed. In that paper the curves of the particle size distribution were approximated by the three-parameter function, which parameters depend on the particle strength and material type. For conformity assessment the model distribution function to the empirical distribution function a residual deviation and non-linear correlation coefficient were calculated. The three-parameter function approximating agrees well with the particle size distribution obtained from experimental data. The dependence of the parameters of a particle size distribution function on the dolomite particle strength was presented. The results indicate the identity of single particle grinding mechanism by slow compression of irregular particles of dolomitic type of copper ore, regardless of the initial particle size.