Maria Pyda-Karwicka, Malwina Karwicka, Magdalena Orłowska, Mariusz Krata and Agnieszka Pedrycz
Renal cancer, according to the Polish National Cancer Registry, was the cause of 4% of cancer cases in men and 3% of cases in women in 2010. Most often it affects men over 65, although it may also concern infants. In 2010, the number of reported cases for men was 2,700 and 1,900 for women. For the last three decades – up to 1990, the incidence of kidney cancer has increased significantly. Currently, it remains at the stable level of morbidity. One of the most significant issues of modern diagnostics and treatment of renal cancer is the problem of its heterogeneity brin-ging many difficulties in systematization and categorization of this neoplasm. The World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors has been published in 2004 and is currently supplemented with new classification units, which, according to ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology), should be considered as separate groups of kidney epithelial cancers.
Maria Pyda-Karwicka, Malwina Karwicka, Janusz Kopczyński, Magdalena Orłowska, Mariusz Krata, Andrzej Skrzyński, Jolanta Masiak, Yee Kong Chow and Agnieszka Pedrycz
Prostate adenocarcinoma, remaining among top most common cancers, is a heterogeneous group of tumors with a diverse morphological structure. Basing on the histological architecture of cancer tissue, individual cases can be classified into different therapeutic groups. Current diagnosis of prostate cancer brings many challenges. The major problem is the lack of effective and accessible diagnostic methods that would eliminate incidences of overdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary treatments of many patients. There are many efforts to determine favorable and unfavorable molecular prognostic factors. The basic marker currently used in this field is prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Increased level of PSA may suggest the presence of prostate cancer although its level is not specific for the disease and can be elevated also in certain benign hyperplastic or inflammatory conditions as well as after irritation or rectal examination. Clinical symptoms such as dysuria or hematuria are often uncharacteristic and benign prostatic diseases which cannot be confirmed on the basis of physical examination alone. Also, we often deal with the situation of false negative results of prostate needle biopsy, which require many tests to determine the final correct diagnosis. Moreover, prostate cancer can also be present in patients with non-elevated serum PSA level. Due to such difficulties, the search for new molecular markers that could be used for diagnostic purposes is underway. Evaluation of survivin level in prostate cancer tissue may serve as a new diagnostic indicator of prostate cancer progression. Other useful molecular biomarkers with good potential in prostate cancer diagnosis are AMACR (Alpha Methyl Acyl Coenzyme A Racemase), p-63 or Ki-67 or microRNAs present in body fluids.