The accelerating pace of climate change is associated to weather-climate related risks manifestations, which in recent years are becoming more intensive and more frequent. Unfortunately, we find that far at regional level there are no a basic scientific information which could highlight their specific spatio-temporal manifestation. In this context, criteria for several weather-related risks identification were quantified, the main ones being material damages, the number of casualties and victims and not the least - and the period they occur. The identified weather and climate related risks may be subject to a complex spatiotemporal analysis, having as a research tool - Geographic Information Systems.
The viticulture, a traditional branch of the national economy, is closely related to climatic conditions because the Republic of Moldova territory represents the northern border of its territorial location. Therefore the knowledge of regional particularities of grapevine productivity formation in dependence of current agro-climatic conditions is of particular interest. Along with accelerated climate change in last decades over the Republic of Moldova territory, we find that are essential changes concerning agro-meteorological conditions, at the same time comprehensive researches that would reflect the actual impact of climate change on grapevine are limited. There are known researches, but in the context of changes that occur at regional level it is necessary to supplement permanently the database in order to elaborate an appropriate estimation of current climate conditions. The above reported facts show the importance of parameters influencing the grapevine productivity time and space study in Republic of Moldova.
Increase the intensity and frequency of the weather and climate risks contribute to compromised harvests in recent decades. Analysis of financial losses indicates that in 2007 and 2012 substantial values were reached. In this context it is important to know their regional peculiarities of manifestation both in present and in the years to come. The results shows that pronounced manifestation of the weather and climate risks in recent years (2000-2013) contributed to the decline of winter wheat harvest of 2q / ha compared with the harvest that is expected in the 2020s - calculated according to the most drastic SRES B2A scenario. The results are extremely necessary to take adaptation measures to new climatic conditions and to food security for the future in the Republic of Moldova.
In the Republic of Moldova, regardless the limited area, regional climate change represents one of the major threats for sustainable development and is one of the biggest environmental problems, with negative consequences for the national economy. Displacement function analysis of the climate rules distribution which is characterizing mean annual temperature at different times in the Republic of Moldova shows that the last decade of the twentieth century (1989-1999) was the warmest decade of the century. At the same time, the first decade (2000-2012) of XXI century is the warmest decade of instrumental observations series (1887-2013). Measurement of the extreme values modification in the Moldova’s climate evolution indicates that absolute maximum of temperatures and deficit (excess) of precipitation have a regular manifestation on the last period (2000-2012).
The accelerating pace of climate change mainly on the adjacent territory of the Danube basin, contribute to the essential eutrophication of water basins within the region. The results indicate that air temperature recorded a double warming compared to territories from the central part of the country. On the background the accelerated warming there is a declining trend and of annual rainfall amounts. These climate changes, especially in recent decades have led to significant increase of water temperature in rivers and lakes. Thus, it constituted in the years 1990-2000 by 0.7 and 1.50C compared to the period 1980-1990, and by 1.0...2,00C accordingly in the years 2000-2013 compared to the previous decade. The significant increase of temperature during the last decade contributed to the intensification of algae growth and together with other factors contributed to the increase by about 20% of the nitrogen content, thus ensuring the ―flowering‖ with 50% of the water bodies’ volume.
Climate variability in decades requires detailed research aspect basin in order to take account of climate change attested, both in making various decisions applicative and at proper adaptation to these changes. Previous research results obtained in this section indicates that territory most vulnerable to climate change is largely located within the Danube basin within the territory of the Republic of Moldova. Therefore, the purpose of the proposed research in this paper was to record some changes in the current period and which are forecasts on thermal regime and precipitation in the scale time 2016-2035.
Aridity in new climatic conditions requires indexes which could adequately explain this process. All the more so, the quantities of atmospheric precipitations also continue to increase on the background of the temperatures increase in the conditions of the Republic of Moldova. Their variable character in the last period of time with the installation of dry and droughty periods alternating with rainy flood-provoking periods determines the selection of the most optimal ecometric indexes that could correctly explain the occurrence of pronounced desertification in the last period of time.
Although it is considered that the socio-economic impact over the last decades on surface water quality is significant, the role of changing regional climate that is manifested by the intensification of desertification process is crucial. In this context, it is important to know the current trends of change in total runoff of surface of surface waters in the context of increase of desertification degree of the regional climate attested in recent years
Current changes of the environment represent the major threats to the sustainable development and are one of the biggest problems, with negative consequences on the national economy. The accelerated pace of these changes is shareholder and by the manifestation of extreme events, which in recent years become more intense and frequent. The drought events frequent manifestation over the Republic of Moldova territory, in the context of climate change, requires a scientific monitoring adjusted.
The dry period’s manifestation is greatly conditioned by increasing daytime temperatures (above 25°C) and the lower relative humidity (below 30%). At present, on the background of climate change, there is an increase of dry days. Over the Republic of Moldova territory, their occurrence during growth and development of crops particularly damaging role in obtaining low yields. Meanwhile, prolonged dry periods, may possibly cause fires, at the same time can determine lands’ irrigation and surface water quality.
In this context, there is a need to estimate the evaporation’s spatial and temporal variability, the number of dry days and their correlation to Dry Periods Index (Izu), the index developed at regional level.
The actual period marred by the global warming requires expanding our knowledge on the regional particularities of climate changes manifestations as consequences of global climatic changes. It was stated that within the limits of Republic of Moldova’s territory the pace of warming is much more accelerated than the global one. These consequences, in their turn, had led to the increase in degree of evaporation of surface waters, which had conditioned the doubling of still water’s pollution in the region (Lake Beleu). We consider that the obtained results could contribute to the adequate management of water resources in the new climatic conditions.