Maria Livia Ognean, Adrian Boicean, Floredana-Laura Șular and Manuela Cucerea
Maria Livia Ognean, Silvia-Maria Stoicescu, Oana Boantă, Leonard Năstase, Carmen Gliga and Manuela Cucerea
Introduction: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) continues to be the leading cause of illness and death in preterm infants. Studies indicate that INSURE strategy (INtubate-SURfactant administration and Extubate to nasal continuous positive airway pressure [nCPAP]) is better than mechanical ventilation (MV) with rescue surfactant, for the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, as it has a synergistic effect on alveolar stability.
Aim of the study: To identify the factors associated with INSURE strategy failure in preterm infants with gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 weeks.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, based on data collected in the Romanian National Registry for RDS patients by three regional (level III) centers between 01.01.2010 and 31.12.2011. All preterm infants of ≤ 32 weeks GA were included. Prenatal and neonatal information were compared between (Group 1), the preterm infants successfully treated using INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation on nasal CPAP (INSURE) strategy and (Group 2), those who needed mechanical ventilation within seventy two hours after INSURE.
Results: A total of 637 preterm infants with GA ≤ 32 weeks were included in the study. INSURE strategy was performed in fifty seven cases (8.9%) [Group 1] and was successful in thirty one patients (54.4%). No differences were found as regards the studied prenatal and intranatal characteristics between (Group 1) and Group 2 who needed mechanical ventilation. Group 2 preterm infants who needed mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after INSURE had significantly lower mean Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and lower peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during resuscitation at birth (p<0.05). Successful INSURE strategy was associated with greater GA, birth weight (BW), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) during resuscitation, and an increased mean dose of surfactant but these associations were not statistically significant (p>0.5).
Conclusion: In preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation, increased INSURE failure rates are associated with complicated pregnancies, significantly lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and lower peripheral oxygen saturation during resuscitation.
Maria Livia Ognean, Oana Boantă, Simona Kovacs, Corina Zgârcea, Raluca Dumitra, Ecaterina Olariu and Doina Andreicuţ
Introduction: Persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is found with increased incidence in preterm infants, significantly affecting neonatal morbidity and mortality rates.
Aim: To evaluate the association between the presence of PDA and the severity of clinical condition at birth in critically ill preterm infants, with gestational ages (GA) ≤ 32 weeks and severe respiratory distress.
Methods: All preterm infants with GA ≤ 32 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Clinical County Emergency Hospital, Sibiu between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015 were included in the study. These were categorized as Group 1 [Preterm infants with PDA; n=154] and Group 2 [Preterm infants without PDA; n=186]. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected in the National Registry for Respiratory Distress Syndrome for all children, and data related to prenatal period, clinical characteristics at birth i.e GA, weight, gender, Apgar scores, and clinical features such as resuscitation at birth, surfactant administration, need and duration of respiratory support, neonatal sepsis, complications associated with prematurity, and death, were analyzed.
Results: Group 1 infants had significantly lower GA and birth weights, were more often out born (p=0.049, HR 1.69), and had significantly lower Apgar scores at 1 and 10 minutes (p=0.022, p=0.000). They presented a significantly higher need for surfactant administration (42.9% vs 24.7%, p<0.0001) and respiratory support (96.8% vs 90.3%, HR 3.19, p=0.019 for need of CPAP and 22.1% vs 10.8%, HR 2.35, p=0.004 for mechanical ventilation). Duration of respiratory support was also significantly higher in the Group 1 (7.6%±7.5 vs. 5.1±3.8 days, p<0.0001 for CPAP and 20.1±22.5 vs. 12.0±15.7 days, p<0.0001 for mechanical ventilation).
Conclusion: In very preterm infants, PDA may be associated with a critical clinical condition leading to serious complications. The presence of PDA after the seventh day of life was associated with an increased need for respiratory support, both CPAP and mechanical ventilation, increased severity of the respiratory distress syndrome, requiring a longer duration of respiratory support, and increased the hospitalization length. In very preterm infants, PDA presence was also associated with a higher rate of severe complications and death, indicating the need for a careful and proper management of these critical cases in neonatal intensive care units.