Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8). Hyperleptinemia has been linked with the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction/atherosclerosis, two main pathophysiological conditions associated with cardiovascular disease development. Leptin-mediated increases in sympathetic nervous system activity may be among the principal mechanisms evoking obesity related hypertension. Leptin stimulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and increases the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1), which may promote hypertension. Increased serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a physiological regulator of the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO), promote the process of atherosclerosis, leading to the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.