Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of engineering systems are critical for the stable and reliable operation in various areas as mobile technology (primarily agricultural, forestry, mining and construction machinery), railways, airlines and large fleets. Thus, to achieve a satisfactory level of reliability for the life of a machine, proactive maintenance strategy is the only key. This means that the application of classical reliability methods suitable for components with sudden failures can be complemented by technical diagnostic methods which have the potential to provide the information about the system condition. In this article we focus on the diagnostic signal related to the used oil – tribodiagnostic measures and is an interesting theoretical item related to the evaluation of the quality of lubricants in the aspect of operation. This is because the oil is in direct contact with single parts of the assessed technical systems. Results tests were reviewed and derived from various parameters of lubricants and their limits that highlight the condition and state of the lubricants under varying categories which include, physiochemical, elemental (wear), contamination and additive analysis.
The aim of the study was the examination of the morphological and compositional attributes of wear particles of tested universal tractor transmission oil (UTTO) samples by means of automatic particle counter and classifier LaserNetFinesTM-C, which is an ideal tool to establish the dynamic equilibrium concentration and hence to set the alarm limits for any type of machine. Such limits can be based on wear type and particle size ranges. The samples of two UTTO (mineral oil and biodegradable fully synthetic oil) were taken from the rear gearboxes of the wheel tractor during a long-term experiment. The measurement results showed that there was faster increase in the particle wear of mineral oil in comparison to biodegradable transmission oil. Considering the increase in the percentage of particles over 20 μm, the biodegradable oil seems to be more favourable for usage. Regardless of this, it can be concluded that the biodegradable oil is equivalent to petroleum-based oils.
At the time when economy is growing, there is strong competition in the market, and customers have increasingly higher expectations as regards quality of service and products. Under such conditions, organizations need to improve. One of the areas of improvement for an organization is to research the level of customer satisfaction. The article presents results of customer satisfaction surveys conducted by the Servqual method in a pharmaceutical service company. Use of this method allowed to improve the services provided by that pharmaceutical wholesaler, identify areas that need to be improved as soon as possible in order to improve the level of service provided.
In the article the idea of the “Smart City” is analysed mainly from the view point of technology. The author presents in the first part of the paper the brief review of technical issues connected with implementing the concept of “Smart City” into practice. These review is illustrated in the second part of the paper by some practical results, which are treated as a background for formulating a research problem which is tried to be presented in the third part of the paper: the problem of recognizing needs in the complex field of activities, assessing these needs and - basing on results of such an assessment - designing some integrated solutions that should be used in management of the identified resources. The final part of the paper contains some conclusions and introduces directions for further research.