Individuals with hypertension and diabetes mellitus are at high risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the multifactorial pathophysiology of atherogenesis provide important information about the complex interrelations between traditional risk factors, inflammation and oxidative stress in mediating all stages of atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to determine if some inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in patients with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus differ from those in healthy age-matched controls. Our results revealed a significant difference in blood pro/antioxidant activities in hypertensive diabetics and the controls. The investigation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers along with traditional risk factors proves useful in complex assessment of vascular risk and primary prophylaxis of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.