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Open access

Marek Wesołowski

Abstract

This article presents numerical modeling results of fault planes and exploitation relics influenced by the size and distribution of rock mass and surface area deformations. Numerical calculations were performed using the finite difference program FLAC. To assess the changes taking place in a rock mass, an anisotropic elasto-plastic ubiquitous joint model was used, into which the Coulomb-Mohr strength (plasticity) condition was implemented. The article takes as an example the actual exploitation of the longwall 225 area in the seam 502wg of the “Pokój” coal mine. Computer simulations have shown that it is possible to determine the influence of fault planes and exploitation relics on the size and distribution of rock mass and its surface deformation. The main factor causing additional deformations of the area surface are the abandoned workings in the seam 502wd. These abandoned workings are the activation factor that caused additional subsidences and also, due to the significant dip, they are a layer on which the rock mass slides down in the direction of the extracted space. These factors are not taken into account by the geometrical and integral theories.

Open access

Marek Wesołowski

Abstract

This paper presents the analysis of numerical modeling results of the influence of mining exploitation influence on the deformations of the area surface, with the use of an anisotropic elasto-plastic ubiquitous joint model and the transversely isotropic elastic model. The comparison of computer modeling results and geodetic measurements shows that with the use of transversely isotropic elastic model and ubiquitous joint model there is a possibility of the simultaneous description of both perpendicular and horizontal displacements of the area surface, caused by mining exploitation.

Open access

Paweł Konieczyński and Marek Wesołowski

Summary

In the study, the relationships were investigated among N, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, in medicinal plant raw materials (herbal bags) and their water-soluble chemical forms in infuses. 42 independent samples of plant materials were chosen, represented by different morphological plant parts as herbs, leaves, flowers and fruits. The elements were determined by UV/Vis spectrometry (non-metals), and FAAS (metallic elements) after previous mineralization of plant samples (total concentrations), and directly in herbal teas (water-extractable forms). Most frequently the correlations between non-metals and Zn and Mn occurred, both between their total contents the water-extractable forms. Statistically significant correlations were also found in pairs: Zn-Mn, Fe-Zn, Mn-Fe, and Cu-Zn. Application of multivariate analysis revealed that cluster analysis grouped the studied samples into clusters with similar levels of the analyzed elements, and principal component analysis allowed the identification of water-extractable Zn, P-PO4 and water-extractable Cu as the most crucial factors determining the differentiation of the studied plant samples.

Open access

Paweł Konieczyński and Marek Wesołowski

Abstract

The aim of the investigation was is to identify differences in an elemental composition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) and their total flavonoids contents of medicinal herbs originating from 9 botanical species, harvested in Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine. Metallic elements were determined by FAAS technique in mg∙kg-1 of dry weight (d. wt) in the order: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu in plant materials, and in infusions: Mn > Zn > Fe > Cu. The ratio of water-soluble form to total amount of a metal was as follows: 66.2% for Cu, 22.4% for Mn, 19.7% for Zn and 3.8% for Fe. The contents of P total, P inorganic and total flavonoids were determined by UV/Vis spectroscopic methods. By using of analysis of variance, correlation and cluster analyses it has been shown that a significant impact on the diversity of samples has the genetic factor - belonging to a particular botanical species of medicinal plant. The origin of investigated plants proved to be statistically significant only in the case of total Fe concentration, which was higher (α < 0.05) for the samples grown in Ukraine. A number of significant correlations was also obtained (r > 0.7) between: P total - P inorganic, Mn total - Mn extractable and Cu total - Cu extractable, also ( r > 0.5) between: total flavonoids - Cu extractable, P total - Cu total, P total - Cu extractable, P inorganic - Zn total. Moreover, comparison of the results of P, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu determination in infusions of medicinal plants with the norms of RDA has shown that a significant amount (several percentage) of Mn and Cu can be supplemented to human organism with 2 cups of infusions prepared from Helichrysi inforescentia and Hyperici herba.

Open access

Paweł Konieczyński, Jan Moszczyński and Marek Wesołowski

Abstract

The aim of the investigation was to assess the utility of spruce needles as a potential material to be used for monitoring the contamination level of the environment of Tricity agglomeration (represented by Gdansk and Gdynia). This aim was realized by determining the levels of selected essential elements indispensable for the life of living organisms, such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, as well as toxic, namely Cd and Pb, in spruce needles collected in the locations in Gdynia and for comparison, in Gdańsk. Due to this, the collected samples of needles were dried, and next digested by microwave technique in order to prepare them for quantitative analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. Moreover, the same metallic elements were determined in the soil samples collected under the spruces, from which needles were taken for the investigation. The concentrations of the studied elements were found in the range of mg/kg of dry mass in the following order: Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd (needles), and Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd (soils). By application of statistical methods (correlation, variance and principal component analyses), the differences in the elemental composition of spruce needles were identified, as well as sources of this differentiation.