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  • Author: Marek W. Lorenc x
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Stone is the oldest, natural material, which was (and still is) used as both building and sculptural material. The most commonly used for these purposes are: granites, marbles, limestones and sandstones, representing the three main genetic groups of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. All of them are permanently being destroyed in result as well of natural weathering as microbiological activity and anthropogenic pollution of atmosphere, known as deterioration. The speed of such decay depends on both environmental conditions and mineral composition of the stone and it can lead to such intensive destruction that conservation may require partial replacement. Smaller damages are refilled with appropriate mineral masses, whereas in case of bigger damages refilling with natural stone is necessary. Professional conservation practice demands the selection and use of the same rock or the rock that is, in so far as is possible, identical to that originally used. It can be done only after previous detailed petrographical studies of the original material. Only then the stone material used for reconstruction will be appropriate and stonework performed properly will not (or almost not) leave marks. In many cases the ancient quarries do not exist and original source material is not available. Then petrographical studies of numerous rock-samples, which are recently available from other existing and/or working quarries, will allow the indication the most similar material. In many cases, unfortunately, the stone used for replacement is not identical to the original but only macroscopically similar. In such a case results might be visible sooner or later. These will be differences in colour, differences in structure and in some cases even crystallization of secondary minerals in the newly inserted fragments.


Post-mining workings, especially after the exploitation of the rocks, become attractive mainly because of their landscape forms. These new forms of landscape can be an important element of tourist interest, and can cause the regional tourist revival. Quarries, as a quite specific forms, may, however, be received by individuals, as more or less attractive. The existing methods of landscape attractiveness evaluation cannot be directly applied to assess the attractiveness of abandoned quarries without the introduction of some partial criteria. The article attempts to present the methodological basis of the procedure for evaluating the attractiveness of the landscape of the quarries by setting new criteria for such an assessment. To do this, the method of semantic differential, called the Osgood’s Method, was used, as well as principles of entropy and point bonitation. The evaluation of the attractiveness of the quarries’ landscape consists of the results of these methods. On such basis, four classes of the attractiveness of the landscape of abandoned quarries have been defined.