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Open access

Ewa Skrzypczak, Marek Babicz, Karolina Szulc, Anna Walendowska and Anna Panek

Impact of Sow Milk Protein Polymorphism on Piglet Rearing

The aim of the investigations was to ascertain interrelationships between polymorphic fractions of milk proteins and rearing results of piglets from Złotnicka White sows. The experimental material comprised 20 sows of the native Złotnicka White breed. Pigs of this breed are included in the National Genetic Resources Conservation Programme. Investigations included two successive (2nd and 3rd) lactations of sows during which the following parameters were determined: number and weight of piglets on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28; weight gains of individual piglets during the period from day 1 to 7, from day 8 to 14, from day 15 to 21 and from day 22 to 28; as well as mortality for the entire period of rearing, i.e. from day 1 to day 28 of age. A total of 425 piglets born in 40 litters (20 sows x 2 lactations) were investigated. As a result of electrophoretic separations, the following four protein fractions were isolated from sow milk: αs1-casein (CSN1S1), genotypes AA, AB, BB and BC; β-casein (CSN2), genotypes AA, AB and BB; κ-casein (CSN3), genotypes AA, AB and BB; β-lactoglobulin (LGB), genotypes AA and BB. The present study showed that milk from sows of AA CSN1S1 and AA LGB genotypes appeared to be more valuable and nourishing, as indicated by the fact that these sows reared piglets which were characterized by the best production results, i.e. body weight, weight gains and the lowest percentage mortality. The least dynamic results were obtained by piglets originating from litters of sows of the AA-CSN3 genotype.

Open access

Beata Więcaszek, Ewa Sobecka, Marek Szulc and Klaudia Górecka

Abstract

The snakeblenny, Lumpenus lampretaeformis, is a post glacial relict from the last ice age in the Baltic Sea. Reliable data on its diet, parasite fauna, distribution, population size, and population trends in the Baltic Sea are lacking. In the Polish zone it has been observed only in ICES subdivisions 25 (Slupsk Furrow) and 26 (Puck Bay, Krynica Morska, Władysławowo and Vistula mouth fishing grounds) at depths of 30-70 m; however, in recent decades only one finding of snakeblenny in Polish waters has been reported. This paper reports the record of one female specimen from the Gulf of Gdañsk. The individual’s morphological characters, stomach contents, parasitic fauna, age and gonadosomatic index were examined. The parasitological examination, which was undertaken for the first time on a specimen from the Baltic Sea since the 1930s, revealed that L. lampretaeformis was the host of one parasite species, namely a juvenile acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi. Additionally, Pontoporeia fermorata and Halicryptus spinulosus were recorded in the stomach of snakeblenny for the first time in the Baltic Sea.

Open access

L. Martyniszyn, L. Szulc-Dąbrowska, A. Boratyńska-Jasińska, A.M. Badowska-Kozakiewicz and M.G. Niemiałtowski

Abstract

Autophagy is a self-degradation process of cellular components. It plays both antiviral and pro-viral roles in the life cycle of different viruses and the pathogenesis of different viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated autophagy induction in splenocytes of ectromelia virus (ECTV)-resistant C57BL/6 and ECTV-susceptible BALB/c mice during infection with the Moscow strain of the ectromelia virus (ECTV-MOS). Autophagy was analyzed using the Western blot method by assessing type II microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin 1 expression levels relative to β-actin. Results indicated an increased ratio of LC3-II to β-actin in splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice only at 7 day post infection (d.p.i.) compared to uninfected animals. LC3-II/β-actin and Beclin 1/β-actin ratios in splenocytes of BALB/c mice increased at 5 d.p.i. and remained high until day 14 and 7 p.i., respectively. We confirmed the formation of autophagosome structures in the spleen of BALB/c mice by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, autophagy accompanied necrosis in the splenocytes of infected animals. Results suggest that ECTV-MOS induced autophagy, especially in the spleen of the susceptible mouse strain, may support viral replication and promote cell necrosis.