In the present study, the presence of flaA, cadF, cdtB, and iam genes of Campylobacter sp. were analysed using PCR. Material for analyses comprised 100 Campylobacter sp. isolates obtained from healthy broiler chickens, fatteners, and calves, among which 84 isolates were ascribed to Campylobacter jejeuni and 16 to Campylobacter coli. All isolates (100%) had the cadF gene responsible for adhesion and the flaA gene determining the motility of the analysed bacteria. The frequency of occurrence of the cdtB gene responsible for the production of the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was determined to be high (98.6% in broiler chickens, 75% in fatteners, 62.5% in calves). In case of the iam gene, the highest frequency was recorded in Campylobacter sp. isolated from broiler chickens (84.7%), while in strains collected from fatteners and calves it was lower, amounting to 41.7% and 18.8%, respectively.
The investigations comprised 100 piglets of crossbreed Polish Landrace x Large White Polish breed. Faeces samples were collected on the 2nd d of piglets’ life (control). On the 5th d of life of the piglets, probiotic paste was applied and 7 d later, faecal samples were collected again. The material included 100 isolates of Campylobacter sp. obtained from healthy piglets. All isolates were assigned to the Campylobacter coli species. The occurrence of virulence genes was determined by the PCR method. Drugresistance of the obtained isolates was determined using diffusion tests and E-test strips. All isolates deriving from the control group piglets were found to contain the cadF gene responsible for adhesion, as well as, gene flaA influencing motility of the examined bacteria. In piglets fed diets supplemented with probiotics, the cadF gene occurred in 100% isolates and gene flaA - in 99% isolates. Campylobacter coli isolates obtained from piglets from the control group exhibited the highest resistance with respect to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. The similar results were recorded in the case of isolates obtained after the probiotic application. The majority of the isolates generated α type haemolysis (91%-92%). No significant differences were recorded in the capability of generating haemolysis between isolates obtained before probiotic administration and the isolates obtained after the application of the experimental probiotic.
Mariola Galbas, Kamila Borys, Anna Woźniak and Marek Selwet
Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in in vitro Cultures
The majority of the global feed market is dominated by the Roundup Ready 40-3-2 transgenic soybean varieties developed and marketed by Monsanto Company, which are characterized by tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient of the Roundup herbicide. It should be remembered, however, that soybean is one of the major allergens which may affect animal health. The aim of the study was to compare allergenic properties of globulins derived from genetically modified (GM) soybean imported from the USA and conventional soybean developed in Poland. Analyses were performed by measuring porcine lymphocyte proliferation in in vitro cultures. It turned out that both genetically modified and conventional soybean proteins caused immune response at the level of negative control. A slight increase in relation to the negative control was observed in the case of 7S and 11S fractions derived from the GM meal and 7S fraction isolated from Nawiko meal.
The presented investigations were conducted on a group of 60 porkers of crossbreed Polish Landrace x Large White Polish. The animals were divided into two equal experimental groups. The control group (K) was fed diets without supplementation with probiotics, group (P) - diets with the addition of probiotic (0.2 kg t-1 feed). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of probiotic preparation on total numberof lactic acid rods from the Lactobacillus genus and those forming hydrogen oxide. The second part of experiment concerned the influence of probiotic preparation on the number, haemolytic ability and changes in drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from animal faeces. The significantly highest number of Lactobacillus sp. were determined in the saliva of porkers fed diets with the addition of probiotic, while the lowest in the control group. Lactobacillus sp. rods capable of forming hydrogen peroxide were isolated from 17 animals in group K and from three animals in group P. E. coli was determined in each examined sample of faeces. In groups K and P, counts of these bacteria were similar and did not differ statistically. High numbers of haemolytic isolates (haemolysis β) were found in faeces of animals fed diets with the addition of probiotic. Number and proportions of resistant isolates in groups K and P were different. Gentamicin was characterised by exceptionally high in vitro effectiveness. The used probiotic increased drug resistance of E. coli and increased frequency of incidence of haemolysis β.