Adam Koćmit, Marek Podlasiński, Małgorzata Roy, Tomasz Tomaszewicz and Justyna Chudecka
Water erosion in the catchment basin of the Jeleni Brook
The study on water erosion in the catchment basin of the Jeleni Brook was carried out in the years 1995-1999. The catchment of the Jeleni Brook has complex relief, receives frequent precipitations and thus is more threatened by water erosion. Soil cultivation and water from quickly melting snow can also be the factors affecting soil erosion. Waters from the melting snow produce rills of the following dimensions (mean values): width from 11.5 to 13.6 cm, depth - from 6.4 to 7.1 cm and length - from 39 to 112 m. The mean values of soil losses vary from 0.5 to 2.02 t·ha-1.
Erosion caused by intensive storm precipitation occurs less frequently but makes much higher soil losses. One of the registered incidents shows that 51.6 t·ha-1 (4.5 mm of soil layer) can be washed out from the area of 0.66 ha. Combined effect of outwashing and ploughing in lower parts of slopes created new forms of relief such as agricultural terraces (escarps). Agricultural terraces assume the shape of scarps up to 2 m high and of different length (e.g. 150 m) along with the land use border-lines between e.g. forest and field or field and grassland.
Agriculturally used soils within this catchment need protection based mainly on agrotechnical measures or on alteration of land use. Some areas should be afforested.
Beata Bosiacka, Helena Więcław, Paweł Marciniuk and Marek Podlasiński
The vegetation of protected salt meadows along the Baltic coast is fairly well known; however, dandelions have been so far treated as a collective species. The aim of our study was to examine the microspecies diversity of the genus Taraxacum in Polish salt and brackish coastal meadows and to analyse soil property preferences of the dandelion microspecies identified. In addition, we analysed the relations between soil properties and vegetation patterns in dandelion-supporting coastal meadows (by canonical correspondence analysis). The salt and brackish meadows along the Polish Baltic coast we visited were found to support a total of 27 dandelion microspecies representing 5 sections. Analysis of vegetation patterns showed all the soil parameters (C:N ratio, organic matter content, pH, concentration of Mg, P, K, electrolytic conductivity of the saturated soil extract ECe) to explain 32.07% of the total variance in the species data. The maximum abundance of most dandelion microspecies was associated with the highest soil fertility, moderate pH values and organic matter content, and with the lowest magnesium content and soil salinity. The exceptions were T. latissimum, T. stenoglossum, T. pulchrifolium and T. lucidum the occur-rence of which was related to the lowest soil fertility and the highest salinity. In addition, several microspecies (T. leptodon, T. gentile, T. haematicum, T. fusciflorum and T. balticum) were observed at moderate C:N ratios and ECe. Four other microspecies (T. infestum, T. cordatum, T. hamatum, T. sertatum) occurred at the lowest pH and organic matter content. The information obtained increases the still insufficient body of knowledge on ecological spectra of individual dandelion microspecies, hence their potential indicator properties.
Marcin Świtoniak, Cezary Kabała, Marek Podlasiński and Bożena Smreczak
Agricultural soil maps (ASM), prepared since mid-1960s until 1980s and digitalised recently, are important source of information on the quality and spatial variability of arable soils in Poland. Basic standard information in each map contour includes the indication of a (genetic) soil type (often also the subtype or variety related to parent material or other specific properties), soil texture classes throughout the profile, and the category of soil agricultural suitability, which covers the complex information about the soil conditions, land morphology, climate and moisture regime. Unfortunately, the genetic classification on ASM is simplified compared to soil classifications in Poland and does not reflect numerous modernisations of the classification systems, including the modifications of existing units and newly introduced soil types and subtypes. Thus, the reinterpretation of ASM is necessary to simplify the further use of ASM by various users, to allow the creation of modern soil maps based on archival databases, and to correlate the soil data with other modern national and international classifications. This paper includes a proposal of equivalents for the soil units indicated in agricultural soil map (using all soil data available in a map contour), correlated with a recent, the 6th edition of Polish Soil Classification.