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Open access

Marek Kowal, Marcin Skobel and Norbert Nowicki

Abstract

Modern cancer diagnostics is based heavily on cytological examinations. Unfortunately, visual inspection of cytological preparations under the microscope is a tedious and time-consuming process. Moreover, intra- and inter-observer variations in cytological diagnosis are substantial. Cytological diagnostics can be facilitated and objectified by using automatic image analysis and machine learning methods. Computerized systems usually preprocess cytological images, segment and detect nuclei, extract and select features, and finally classify the sample. In spite of the fact that a lot of different computerized methods and systems have already been proposed for cytology, they are still not routinely used because there is a need for improvement in their accuracy. This contribution focuses on computerized breast cancer classification. The task at hand is to classify cellular samples coming from fine-needle biopsy as either benign or malignant. For this purpose, we compare 5 methods of nuclei segmentation and detection, 4 methods of feature selection and 4 methods of classification. Nuclei detection and segmentation methods are compared with respect to recall and the F1 score based on the Jaccard index. Feature selection and classification methods are compared with respect to classification accuracy. Nevertheless, the main contribution of our study is to determine which features of nuclei indicate reliably the type of cancer. We also check whether the quality of nuclei segmentation/detection significantly affects the accuracy of cancer classification. It is verified using the test set that the average accuracy of cancer classification is around 76%. Spearman’s correlation and chi-square test allow us to determine significantly better features than the feature forward selection method.

Open access

Marek Kraft, Michał Nowicki, Rudi Penne, Adam Schmidt and Piotr Skrzypczyński

Abstract

The problem of position and orientation estimation for an active vision sensor that moves with respect to the full six degrees of freedom is considered. The proposed approach is based on point features extracted from RGB-D data. This work focuses on efficient point feature extraction algorithms and on methods for the management of a set of features in a single RGB-D data frame. While the fast, RGB-D-based visual odometry system described in this paper builds upon our previous results as to the general architecture, the important novel elements introduced here are aimed at improving the precision and robustness of the motion estimate computed from the matching point features of two RGB-D frames. Moreover, we demonstrate that the visual odometry system can serve as the front-end for a pose-based simultaneous localization and mapping solution. The proposed solutions are tested on publicly available data sets to ensure that the results are scientifically verifiable. The experimental results demonstrate gains due to the improved feature extraction and management mechanisms, whereas the performance of the whole navigation system compares favorably to results known from the literature.

Open access

Anna Abramowska, Krystyna A. Cieśla, Marek J. Buczkowski, Andrzej Nowicki and Wojciech Głuszewski

Abstract

The cornstarch: poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films characterized by the alternating ratio of starch:PVA (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100) and containing 30% of glycerol were prepared by solution casting. The films were irradiated with an absorbed dose of 25 kGy with gamma rays in a vacuum and with fast electrons in the air. The films characterized by a high content of starch appeared stiff, while the films characterized by a high content of PVA were highly flexible. The tensile strength and flexibility, as well as swelling and hydrophilicity, increased with the increase in the PVA content in the films. However, the tensile strength and wetting angle values achieved a minimum at an intermediate composition. It was found that irradiation enables to reduce hydrophilicity of the films accompanied by a decrease in their flexibility. No general conclusion concerning the effect of irradiation on tensile strength and swelling behavior can be derived. An increase in the homogeneity of the films and an increase in the compatibility of their components was found by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Strong interactions of the starch and the PVA components were discovered by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Degradation was found to be the prevailing process occurring in the films under the influence of irradiation. The possible accompanying crosslinking is discussed in terms of the gel content in the samples. Creation of various oxidation products in the films characterized by the modified composition was observed under the influence of irradiation carried out in the air. Basing on the obtained results it can be supposed that the selected starch-PVA compositions might appear useful as packagings of the products predicted for radiation decontamination.

Open access

Łukasz Majchrzycki, Mariusz Walkowiak, Agnieszka Martyła, Mikhail Y. Yablokov, Marek Nowicki and Ryszard Czajka

Abstract

Nowadays reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is regarded as a highly interesting material which is appropriate for possible applications in electrochemistry, especially in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Several methods were proposed for the preparation of rGO-based electrodes, resulting in high-capacity LIBs anodes. However, the mechanism of lithium storage in rGO and related materials is still not well understood. In this work we focused on the proposed mechanism of favorable bonding sites induced by additional functionalities attached to the graphene planes. This mechanism might increase the capacity of electrodes. In order to verify this hypothesis the composite of non-reduced graphene oxide (GO) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrodes was fabricated. Electrochemical properties of GO composite anodes were studied in comparison with similarly prepared electrodes based on rGO. This allowed us to estimate the impact of functional groups on the reversible capacity changes. As a result, it was shown that oxygen containing functional groups of GO do not create, in noticeable way, additional active sites for the electrochemical reactions of lithium storage, contrary to what has been postulated previously.

Open access

Lucyna Słomińska, Roman Zielonka, Leszek Jarosławski, Aldona Krupska, Andrzej Szlaferek, Wojciech Kowalski, Jolanta Tomaszewska-Gras and Marek Nowicki

Abstract

Air dry potato starch (84.9% d.s.) was subjected to pressurizing under the pressure of 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 MPa for 1 h. The physical properties of pressurized starch, such as morphology, surface and crystalline structure, gelatinization parameters, were studied by means of scanning and atomic force microscopy (SEM/AFM), X-ray diffraction (X-ray), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The susceptibility to the amylolytic enzyme (α-amylase) was also measured. Application of pressure in the range of 50–2000 MPa results in an increase in the compressed potato starch bulk density, change in the contours of the granules from oval to polyhedral, increase in the roughness of the granule surface, vanishing of the X-ray reflexes generated by the orthogonal structure and weakening of the reflexes generated by the hexagonal structure, lowering of the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, and the enhancement of hydrolytic susceptibility of starch granules to the amylolytic enzyme.