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Marek Nowacki

The quality of attractions and the satisfaction, benefits and behavioural intentions of visitors: verification of a model

The study is an attempt to verify a model of the relations between motivation, quality of attraction, benefits, satisfaction and the behavioural intentions of visitors to tourism attractions. The data for the analysis was collected from 582 visitors during the 10th Archaeological Festival at Biskupin. It was noted that the effect of the quality of the attraction on behavioural intentions leads to the benefits gained by the visitors. Benefits have a stronger total effect on behavioural intentions than visitor satisfaction.

Open access

Marek Nowacki

Abstract

The paper has employed a three-factor model of constraints, which differentiates intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural. The study was carried out on a sample of N = 981 adult residents of Poland. The three most common barriers constraining attendance at attractions were identified: availability, high entrance fees and lack of time. The constraints were found to be related to a number of socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, education, size of place of residence and household income per capita. Three market segments limited by similar constraints and showing similar attraction attendance behaviour were identified with their socio-demographic characteristics.

Open access

Marek Nowacki

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to identify unique elements of the brands of Polish cities and to identify similarities and differences between them. The work attempts to answer the following research questions: Which elements significantly differentiate the brands of studied cities in online reviews? and Which of the studied cities are the most similar in terms of brand elements and which differ in this regard. The data for analysis was obtained from TripAdvisor. Reviews about areas of tourist concentration – old markets or old towns – from five Polish cities: Poznań, Wrocław, Kraków, Gdańsk and Warsaw were analysed (N = 5125). The research shows that Gdańsk and Warsaw as well as Poznań and Wrocław have the most similar brand elements. The Kraków brand is the more unique in relation to other cities.

Open access

Andrzej Rutkowski, Maciej Chwaliński, Leszek Zajâc, Zbigniew Nowecki and Marek Nowacki

Risk of Permanent Stoma After Resection of Rectal Cancer Depending on the Distance Between the Tumour Lower Edge and Anal Verge

The distance between the anal verge and lower edge of rectal cancer is one of the most important factors affecting the feasibility of sphincter-preserving resection.

The aim of the study was to assess the risk of permanent stoma after resection of rectal tumour depending on the distance between the tumour and the anal verge.

Material and methods. The retrospective analysis covered 884 patients after resection of rectal cancer. The distance between the anal verge and the lowest edge of the tumour was measured during endoscopic examination. Surgical technique was similar in all cases. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used.

Results. The overall rate of sphincter-preserving procedures was 71.8%, 90.1% of which were anterior resections. The greatest differences between the rate of anterior resections were noted for the segment between the 4th and the 5th centimetres: 30.1% for 4 cm vs 66.7% for 5 cm, p = 0.005. Overall, in 328 patients (37.1%) surgical treatment resulted in a permanent stoma. The number included: 246 (75.0%) patients after abdominosacral resection, 44 (13.4%) patients after the Hartmann procedure, three (0.9%) patients after proctocolectomy, and 28 (8.5%) patients after anterior resection, with a permanent stoma as a result of anastomotic leak. The overall rate of anastomotic leak was 11.7%. Formation of a defunctioning stoma in patients with a low-lying (6 cm from the anal verge) tumour reduced the risk of symptomatic anastomotic leak: 6.3% vs 20.5%; p = 0.049.

Conclusions. Anterior resection of tumours located 6 cm from the anal verge is feasible in 90%. Anastomotic leak that requires reoperation increases the risk of permanent colostomy. In selected cases, formation of a defunctioning stoma after resection of low-lying rectal cancer can reduce the risk of permanent colostomy.