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Open access

Marek Jaśkiewicz, Dariusz Więckowski and J. Matijosius

Abstract

The paper deals with problems connected with the transportation of dangerous cargo in articulated road tankers. The problems related to transverse stability of articulated vehicles have been discussed. The rig and experimental tests carried out to explore the transverse stability problem have been presented. Attention has been paid to the specificity of articulated road tankers. The necessity of rig and field testing of vehicles of this kind has been emphasized. The specificity of the transportation of such articulated vehicles by sea has been highlighted.

Open access

Marek Jaśkiewicz, Juraj Hammer, Miloš Poliak and Dariusz Więckowski

Abstract

Enterprise in the EU is currently a single market business, but on which the conditions are not completely unified. In the case of mineral oil excise duty a minimum level of taxation is set by EU rules, but individual states do not strictly prescribe a specific rate of tax. It is a fact for international road transport, that there are states on the route of transport, where it is preferable to pump fuel. Because the mineral oil tax is an income of state budget in concrete state, is good for the state, if the carrier pumps fuel on the territory of that state. For carriers who only drive within the country the higher tax rate is more advantageous in terms of choice. For this reason, some EU countries apply for the selected group of entrepreneurs, the refund of excise duty due to the use of carriers in their territory and to achieve higher tax deduction in cumulative terms. The purpose of this contribution is to identify the possibilities for refunding excise duty in the Slovak Republic and to propose a procedure for assessing the effects of the refund of excise duty on mineral oils.

Open access

Marek Jaśkiewicz, Juraj Hammer and Miloš Poliak

Abstract

In general, transport companies have an unimportant role in the business market, in order to achieve the required sales and the related profit. Competition in road transport is great and enforcement from a large number of carriers is considerable. It is the price for the transport of goods that plays the most important role how to get the carrier and the customer who wants the lowest transport price. On the contrary, the carrier would like to get the highest amount for the shipment. A compromise between these two requirements should form the required shipping price. Pricing involves a factor other than costs, the attractiveness of the transport destination, in terms of the possibility of return utilization the vehicle. The aim of the paper is to verify the hypothesis, that the cost of transport is affected not only by the carrier’s costs, but also the target destination of the ordered shipment.

Open access

Miloš Poliak, Patrícia Šimurková, Marek Jaśkiewicz, P. Posuniak and J. Stokłosa

Abstract

The working conditions of truck drivers and social legislation are both topical and political issues in the field of road freight transport. The contribution outlines problems which are linked to the observance of the ban on weekly rest in the vehicle. Based on the judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union explicitly forbids drivers to take their regular weekly rest in the vehicle. The contribution identifies the impact of the ban on spending weekly rest in the vehicle on transport planning in the EU. The aim of the contribution is also to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector in connection with insufficient number of truck parks with accommodation.

Open access

Miloš Poliak, Patrícia Šimurková, Marek Jaśkiewicz and Dariusz Więckowski

Abstract

International road transport is a specific service within the frame of services provided in the European Union. It is because the conditions of being active on the market are influenced by the states where businessmen operate, but services can be provided throughout the whole year in other member states of the European Union. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector. These problems persist despite the fact that market access was exempted from the national law of individual member states and regulated directly by EU regulations. Despite the unification of market access, tax and social harmonization is not ensured in international road freight transport. An unequal tax burden on carriers and different requirements of wage regulations create a discriminatory environment among entrepreneurs. The contribution identifies the factors that deform the equal operating conditions in single market. The aim of the contribution is also to provide the readers with the answers to the questions: Is it possible under current EU conditions to harmonize tax and social conditions? What impact would this harmonization have on business environment?

Open access

Miloš Poliak, Patrícia Šimurková, Marek Jaśkiewicz and Salvador Hernandez

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. It highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. The article proposes conditions of market access unification in freight forwarding based on analysis of the existing situation. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples. There is also pointed to the need for the development of uniform freight forwarding conditions in the EU.

Open access

Iwona Puzio, Teresa Jaśkiewicz, Agnieszka Sagan, Marek Bieńko and Dorota Graboś

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and false flax (Camelina sativa) seed oil (CS) on bone quality in broiler chickens. Experiment was carried out on 96 chickens randomly divided into four groups: control group fed diet with sunflower oil (SO) and three experimental groups fed diet with addition of CLA (2.86% starter, 4.32% grower) and diet with addition of CLA (1.43% starter, 2.16% grower) and SO or CS (1.43% starter, 2.16% grower). On the 35th d of life eight birds per treatment were slaughtered and the femur, humerus, and tibia were isolated for further analysis. Using DXA method, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured. Furthermore, weight and length of bones were assessed. The weight, BMD, and BMC in chickens from CS+CLA group were significantly higher when compared with CLA group. The significant differences were noted for BMC between control and CS+CLA birds. No marked differences of bone parameters were observed between control group and CLA, and SO+CLA groups. In conclusion, the results indicate that false flax oil and CLA can replace sunflower oil in chickens feeding, and demonstrate the effectiveness of false flax oil on the enhancement of bone properties in broiler chickens.

Open access

Miloš Poliak, Juraj Hammer, Marek Jaśkiewicz, K. Zielonka and J. Stokłosa

Abstract

In freight road transport, the price per unit of transport is not the same for each shipment for reason, that many factors influence the cost of shipping. An important aspect, in addition to cost inputs, which decides, how high will the shipping cost it is the destination where the transportation takes place. The purpose of this article is to identify the impact of the change of destination on carrier costs. Authors will not deal with specific costs related to the change of destination, which include, for example, charges for the use of the road network or travel compensation to the driver, but will only deal with the probability of vehicle back-up. If the carrier is unable to backhaul of the vehicle, the initial shipping costs increase significantly.

Open access

Jozef Gnap, Dominika Rovňaníková and Marek Jaśkiewicz

Abstract

The introduction of this article outlines the terms and conditions of food control in the Slovak Republic and the institutions that provide it. This section also provides the comparison of inspection results in selected periods. The second part of the paper describes the measurement of the regional transport of perishable food products. The measurement compares all permitted temperature tolerances and is subsequently evaluated. The results of the measurements are also compared with the analysis of the number of checks carried out.