The article presents the overview of the rendzinas found in the Polish Tatra mountains based on literature data and unpublished authors results and observations. Particular attention was paid to soil properties related to the high mountain environment in Poland occurring only in the the Tatra Mountains. The influence of soil forming factors on the genesis of rendzinas and their spatial distribution was described. Furthermore the soils properties were analysed in order of distinguished soil units. Finally the proposal for classification of Tatra rendzinas was given.
The article refers to the stock and sequestration of organic carbon in soils rich in carbonates, particularly in rendzinas. It presents factors determining sequestration of organic carbon in rendzinas in comparison to other soils, and describes the mechanisms of accumulation of organic matter in these soils. Attention was paid to the atypical morphology of organic and humus horizons occurring in soils rich in carbonates, with specificity related to biological processes.
Łukasz Musielok, Marek Drewnik, Wojciech Szymański and Mateusz Stolarczyk
The aim of the study was to test the suitability of the 6th edition of Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) in reflecting the typical features of subalpine Bieszczady Mts. soils in comparison with the 5th edition of Polish Soil Classification (SGP5) and the newest version of World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Five soil profiles located in differentiated in terms of the parent material, topography and vegetation conditions of the natural environment were investigated. On the basis of described morphology and determined properties soils were classified according to different soil classifications. All soils under study were featured by presence of thick A horizons and high content of soil organic carbon accumulated even very deep in the profiles. Some of the mineral topsoil layers were classified as umbric/umbrik horizons. Moreover cambic/kambik horizons were present and in some cases also weak redoximorphic features occurred. The SGP6 enabled to distinguish soils with a thick, organic carbon-rich A horizons as umbrisols, a newly created subtype of grey soils. Furthermore, the soil taxonomic position according to SGP6 was more detailed in relation to the soil trophic status (in case of brown soils) and occurrence of weak redoximorphic features. That was reflected in number of subtypes to which analyzed soils were classified – 4 in SGP6 vs 2 in SGP5.
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.