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  • Author: Marek Świtoński x
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Amorphus globosus foetuses in Polish Holstein cattle: anatomical, histological, and genetic studies



A comprehensive description is presented of four novel cases ofamorphus globosus (ag) foetuses originating from multiple pregnancies of Polish Holstein cows.

Material and Methods

Four amorphic foetuses were delivered by three cows. Tissue samples were collected during autopsy, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue samples of abnormal foetuses and from blood leukocytes of their healthy siblings. PCR reactions were used to reveal the presence of Y-linked genes (SRY and AMELY) and an X-linked gene (AMELX).


All foetuses were classified to the groupholoacardius amorphous (anideus). Molecular analysis clearly showed that at 17 microsatellite loci, the studied amorphous foetuses had identical genotypes to the viable co-twins.


Foetuses had monozygotic origin. Histological analysis showed a low level of development of tissues of meso- and ectodermal origin, as well as features of degrading patterns.

Open access
FTO and IRX3 Genes are Not Promising Markers for Obesity in Labrador Retriever Dogs


Obesity is a serious problem in numerous dog breeds, but knowledge of its hereditary background is scarce. On the contrary, numerous DNA polymorphisms associated with human obesity have been identified, with the strongest effect being demonstrated for FTO gene. We used targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) to search for polymorphisms in the region harboring FTO and IRX3 in 32 Labrador dogs. Moreover, we investigated the selected regions of FTO and IRX3, orthologous to the human regions associated with obesity, in 165 Labradors. For all dogs, the following information was available: age, sex, gonadal status, body weight, and body conformation score (BCS). The use of tNGS revealed 12,217 polymorphisms, but none of these obtained significance when lean and obese dogs were compared. Study of two SNPs in the 5’-flanking region of FTO in 165 dogs – creating two upstream reading frames (uORFs) – also showed no association with body weight and BCS but suggested the need for improvement in FTO annotation. No polymorphism was found in the 5’UTR of IRX3. Additionally, no differences of CpG islands methylation status between lean and obese dogs were found. Our study suggests that FTO and IRX3 are not useful markers of obesity in Labrador dogs.

Open access