The combat-trainer jet aircraft is an important element in the process of fighter pilot training. This type of aircraft provides a means of transition from basic training on low-speed propeller trainers to piloting high-speed and highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. Nowadays, in Poland, the PZL TS-11 “ISKRA” jet trainers, designed in 1960s, are employed for training purposes. Because of financial considerations this trainer hasn’t been yet replaced by modern aircraft that conforms to current specifications and needs.
As is the case with other aircraft in service of the PLAF, the TS-11 fleet has a large reserve of remaining Hourly Service Life (HSL). This opens an opportunity to extend the Calendar Service Life (CSL), so as it matches the HSL. To this end, a series of technical and research activities needed to be undertaken. The Air Force Institute of Technology is conducting the necessary verification of airframe structural conditions in cooperation with the Military Aviation Works No. 1 J.S.C. (branch in Dęblin) responsible for the overhaul and repair operations.
The AFIT’s activities in this program include:
deformation analysis of the selected surface areas of the wing and the fuselage;
assessment of hidden corrosion in riveted joints;
non-destructive testing of selected riveted joints.
This paper describes the deformation analysis. As of today, the first stage of the deformation inspection has been completed. At this stage, baseline surface measurements were obtained. Further inspections shall be performed cyclically. The future measurements will be used to establish the areas that deform due to the aircraft operation.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the utilisation of zeolites in the removal of ammonium from systems of biological the transformation of organic substrates to biogas during methane fermentation. The results showed that the highest efficiency of removal of ammonium from digestate was achieved with a 10 g/dm3 dose of zeolite. This efficiency was from 37.87 ± 0.54% to 46.01 ± 0.8%. The experiment demonstrated a linear relationship between the dose of zeolite in the range from 1 g/dm3 to 10 g/dm3 and the efficiency of the sorption and the final concentration of N-NH4. The highest sorption of N-NH4 was observed in a variant with the zeolite dose of 1 g/dm3 and it was from 161.74 ± 2.01 mg N-NH4/g to 132 ± 4.7 mg N-NH4/g in the digestate and from 112 ± 8.54 mg N-NH4/g to 122 ± 12.90 mg N-NH4/g in the effluent from digestate.
This paper presents a general concept of the Full Scale Fatigue Test of the Mi-24 helicopter including the test layout and load distribution, as well as describes the milestones to be achieved. Additionally, some initial work conducted in order to determine both the mass and load distribution in the structure is described. The main goal of the test is to verify the low cycle fatigue life of the helicopter structure (fuselage, tail boom, wings and landing gear). The test will be divided into two main stages at which flight and landing loads will be applied. The authors demonstrate the general test concept, the helicopter’s structure fixture and the arrangement of the hydraulic actuators at both stages in order to achieve representative loads during the test. The proposed concept is based on AFIT’s previous experience in full scale structural testing, available literature and the experience of the test staff.
Results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and microscopic studies on simple microorganisms, brewing yeasts, are presented. Lifetime of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) were found to change from 2.4 to 2.9 ns (longer-lived component) for lyophilized and aqueous yeasts, respectively. Also hygroscopicity of yeasts in time was examined, allowing to check how water – the main component of the cell – affects PALS parameters, thus lifetime of o-Ps were found to change from 1.2 to 1.4 ns (shorter-lived component) for the dried yeasts. The time sufficient to hydrate the cells was found below 10 hours. In the presence of liquid water, an indication of reorganization of yeast in the molecular scale was observed. Microscopic images of the lyophilized, dried, and wet yeasts with best possible resolution were obtained using inverted microscopy (IM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) methods. As a result, visible changes to the surface of the cell me mbrane were observed in ESEM images.
The J-PET detector being developed at the Jagiellonian University is a positron emission tomograph composed of the long strips of polymer scintillators. At the same time, it is a detector system that will be used for studies of the decays of positronium atoms. The shape of photomultiplier signals depends on the hit time and hit position of the gamma quantum. In order to take advantage of this fact, a dedicated sampling front-end electronics that enables to sample signals in voltage domain with the time precision of about 20 ps and novel reconstruction method based on the comparison of examined signal with the model signals stored in the library has been developed. As a measure of the similarity, we use the Mahalanobis distance. The achievable position and time resolution depend on the number and values of the threshold levels at which the signal is sampled. A reconstruction method as well as preliminary results are presented and discussed.
Nowadays, in positron emission tomography (PET) systems, a time of flight (TOF) information is used to improve the image reconstruction process. In TOF-PET, fast detectors are able to measure the difference in the arrival time of the two gamma rays, with the precision enabling to shorten significantly a range along the line-of-response (LOR) where the annihilation occurred. In the new concept, called J-PET scanner, gamma rays are detected in plastic scintillators. In a single strip of J-PET system, time values are obtained by probing signals in the amplitude domain. Owing to compressive sensing (CS) theory, information about the shape and amplitude of the signals is recovered. In this paper, we demonstrate that based on the acquired signals parameters, a better signal normalization may be provided in order to improve the TOF resolution. The procedure was tested using large sample of data registered by a dedicated detection setup enabling sampling of signals with 50-ps intervals. Experimental setup provided irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with annihilation gamma quanta.
In this paper, we present prospects for using the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) detector to search for discrete symmetries violations in a purely leptonic system of the positronium atom. We discuss tests of CP and CPT symmetries by means of ortho-positronium decays into three photons. No zero expectation values for chosen correlations between ortho-positronium spin and momentum vectors of photons would imply the existence of physics phenomena beyond the standard model. Previous measurements resulted in violation amplitude parameters for CP and CPT symmetries consistent with zero, with an uncertainty of about 10−3. The J-PET detector allows to determine those values with better precision, thanks to the unique time and angular resolution combined with a high geometrical acceptance. Achieving the aforementioned is possible because of the application of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta.
The polystyrene doped with 2,5-diphenyloxazole as a primary fluor and 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole as a wavelength shifter prepared as a plastic scintillator was investigated using positronium probe in wide range of temperatures from 123 to 423 K. Three structural transitions at 260, 283, and 370 K were found in the material. In the o-Ps intensity dependence on temperature, the significant hysteresis is observed. Heated to 370 K, the material exhibits the o-Ps intensity variations in time.
The Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET) collaboration is developing a prototype time of flight (TOF)-positron emission tomograph (PET) detector based on long polymer scintillators. This novel approach exploits the excellent time properties of the plastic scintillators, which permit very precise time measurements. The very fast field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based front-end electronics and the data acquisition system, as well as low- and high-level reconstruction algorithms were specially developed to be used with the J-PET scanner. The TOF-PET data processing and reconstruction are time and resource demanding operations, especially in the case of a large acceptance detector that works in triggerless data acquisition mode. In this article, we discuss the parallel computing methods applied to optimize the data processing for the J-PET detector. We begin with general concepts of parallel computing and then we discuss several applications of those techniques in the J-PET data processing.