The paper presents the results of genotypic differentiation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates that originated from cows and pigs positive in serological reactions for brucellosis, and also from the animals, which were serologically negative. The genetic relationship between Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates originating from different sources was determined by the use of ERIC-PCR, and resulted in detection of 6 to 13 DNA amplicons of different size. The clonal analysis was based on dendrogram created by Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean and Jaccard’s coefficient, which enabled to divide Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates into 16 different clonal groups. Among all Y. enterocolitica O:9, MIC value was >32 mg/L for the ampicillin, ≤0.008 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, ≤8 mg/L for sulphametoxazole, ≤2 mg/L for colistin, and ≤1 mg/L for tetracycline. The wide range of MIC for ceftazidime (≤0.25-2 mg/L) and cefotaxime (≤0.06-1 mg/L) among Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates was also observed. No significant differences were observed between MIC values of Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates originating from animals serologically positive for brucellosis, and the isolates from cows and pigs, which provided serologically negative reactions.
The paper presents the results of bacteriological and molecular investigations on the presence of Y. enterocolitica O:9 in the head, mammary and genital lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and uterus samples originating from 58 cows slaughtered due to the positive results of serological examinations for brucellosis. All samples were cultured for Brucella and Y. enterocolitica and examined in multiplex PCR assay (mPCR), in order to identify the universal 16S rRNA Brucella sp. marker and amplify the perosamine synthetase (per) gene, specific for Y. enterocolitica O:9 only. Out of 58 examined animals, in 23 cases the presence of Y.enterocolitica was demonstrated. Typical Yersinia-suspected colonies were seen after 24-48 h incubation on Cefsulodin-Irgasan- Novobiocin (CIN) Yersinia selective solid medium. The mPCR analysis confirmed the presence of predicted amplicon of 312 bp, typical for Y. enterocolitica O:9 in 20 out of 58 lymph node samples tested and similarly, as in bacteriological examination, other samples were negative. The presence of the 16S rRNA gene of Brucella, generating the amplicon of 905 bp, was not observed in any of the samples tested.
The aim of this study was the evaluation of fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA) in the diagnosis of porcine brucellosis in comparison with Rose Bengal test (RBT), serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT), 2-mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA. Eight hundred seventeen sera from pigs, including 612 sera from healthy animals, seven sera from Brucella suis bv2 culture positive animals, and 198 sera classified as false positive, originated from confirmatory investigations, were used. All sera from healthy animals, negative in RBT, SAT, CFT, and ELISA were also negative in FPA. All sera positive in serological examination, originated from Brucella infected animals, were also positive in FPA. Among sera classified as false positive almost half of the samples tested (49.49%) reacted positively in FPA. The examinations confirmed the usefulness of FPA in diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, but the method, like the other tests, does not allow resolving the problem of discrimination cross-reacting from specific antibodies.
Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263). Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.
Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of enterococci in inflammatory secretions from mastitic bovine udders and to assess their antimicrobial resistance.
Material and Methods: A total of 2,000 mastitic milk samples from cows were tested in 2014–2017. The isolation of enterococci was performed by precultivation in buffered peptone water, selective multiplication in a broth with sodium azide and cristal violet, and cultivation on Slanetz and Bartley agar. The identification of enterococci was carried out using Api rapid ID 32 strep kits. The antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using the MIC technique.
Results: Enterococci were isolated from 426 samples (21.3%). Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant species (360 strains), followed by E. faecium (35 isolates), and small numbers of others. The highest level of resistance was observed to lincomycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tylosin. Single strains were resistant to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were sensitive to daptomycin. E. faecalis presented a higher level of resistance in comparison to E. faecium, except to nitrofurantoin.
Conclusion: The results showed frequent occurrence of enterococci in mastitic cow’s milk and confirmed the high rate of their antimicrobial resistance.
Fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA) was evaluated as a potential tool improving specificity of serological diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle and pigs. The evaluation was performed by comparing the results of FPA with the results of rose Bengal test (RBT), serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test, and indirect ELISA when problematic sera, regarded as false positive, were tested. Four hundred and seventy-five sera, including 201 porcine and 274 bovine samples, reacting positively in at least one classical serological assay were used. Only six bovine sera were FPA positive (two positive in SAT and RBT and four positive in SAT only). Different situation was observed when porcine sera were examined. Out of 201 sera, 109 were also positive in FPA. The studies confirmed that in cattle FPA enables to reduce highly the number of false positive reactions for brucellosis. On the other hand, in pigs, the method is a little more specific in comparison to other methods applied.
The aim of study was the preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli in 650 milk and inflammatory secretions from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. One millilitre of the sample was added to Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, Tryptone Soya Broth with cefoxitin and aztreonam, and then to MRSA ID agar. Presumptive MRSA colonies were analysed for the presence of mecA gene. Parallel to MRSA identification, the samples were incubated in buffered peptone water, lauryl tryptose broth and McConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxim for ESBL-producing E. coli isolation. These bacteria were identified using API Rapid 32 E and the ability of ESBL production was initially established using disc test D68C and confirmed by MIC technique using Sensititre ESBL plates. The primers (blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2-group) for the detection of some of the genes encoding ESBL production were used. The 45 strains of S. aureus with mecA gene and 41 strains of E. coli with blaTEM gene were detected.
The paper concerns molecular study on pathogenicity markers of fourteen Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolated from pigs in which initially positive serological reactions for brucellosis were observed (n = 41), healthy pigs, which were brucellosis-negative (n = 258), and wild boars serologically negative for brucellosis (n = 209). PCR identification proved that all isolates were ail, ystA- and myfA-positive. The plasmid encoding yadA marker was detected in nine isolates that originated from pigs serologically positive or negative for brucellosis, and from one isolate of wild boar origin. Furthermore, none of the examined isolates was ystB-positive. Results of the investigations indicate that the Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates from pigs or wild boars, regardless of whether they were serologically positive or negative for brucellosis, may also be potentially pathogenic for humans, due to the presence of chromosomal and plasmid encoded molecular markers.
The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.
The aim of the study was to perform a molecular investigations for the presence of pathogenicity genotypic markers of Y.enterocolitica O:9 isolated from cattle, in which initially positive serological reactions for brucellosis were observed. Almost all isolates were ail-, ystA- and myfA-positive (n=19). On the other hand, one isolate, which harboured plasmid encoding gene yadA was ail- , ystA- and myfA-negative. The plasmid encoding yadA marker was present in half of the isolates tested. None of the examined isolates was ystB-positive. The results of the investigations revealed that the Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates, related to false positive serological results for brucellosis, may be also potentially pathogenic for humans, due to the presence of chromosomal and plasmidencoded molecular markers.