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Open access

Jakub Turski, Joanna Głogowska, Marcin Wilczkiewicz and Romuald Stupnicki


Study aim: To compare the perception of own body by adolescent boys with an external assessment.

Material and methods: Two groups of boys (45 from Warsaw, aged 15 – 16 years, and 49 from a small town in South- Eastern Poland, aged 16 years) were studied by using standard body image templates containing 9 shapes. Every boy indicated the perceived shape and that he wished to have. The external assessment was done by the same investigator and that assessment served to classify boys as underweight (n = 4), normal (n = 51) or overweight (n = 39; Shapes 1 – 2, 3 – 4 and 5 – 9, respectively) and to correlate the scores with BMI.

Results: The external and self-assessments were concordant in overweight boys, the desired shapes being significantly lower only in Group 1. The percentage of overweight boys was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. “Normal” boys from Group 1 significantly (p<0.001) overrated their body shape compared with external rating. External ratings of body shape significantly correlated with BMI values in both groups alike (r = 0.82, p<0.001).

Conclusions: The presented approach to body shape studies may contribute to preventing biosocial disorders in adolescent boys brought about by thoughtless striving for an ideal shape promoted by mass media.

Open access

Mariola Chomczyńska, Vladimir Soldatov, Henryk Wasąg and Marcin Turski


The effect of small additions of ion exchange substrate (nutrient carrier) on root development and accompanying ground cohesion (characterized by its penetration resistance) was studied. During two pot experiments Dactylis glomerata L. was grown on sand and its mixture with 1 and 2% (v/v) of ion exchange substrate, respectively. The number and total length of roots were measured during the first test. Penetration resistance was measured with a pentrologger, following the second experiment. After six weeks of growth, number and length of roots in sand mixture with 1 and 2% substrate was greater than in sand-only medium by 211-287 and 273-323%, respectively. At the same time, penetration resistance in series with substrate additions was significantly higher than in control medium at depth of 2.5-7(8) cm, whereas after 12 week of growth, penetration resistance in series with 1 and 2% substrate additions was significantly greater than in control sand at the whole analyzed depth. The highest resistance values in media with substrate additions 2-2.5 times greater than those in sand alone – were observed at depth of 3.5-4.0 cm. Higher resistance of sand-substrate mixtures results from more intensive development of root systems, forming a mesh which binds sand particles. Such media would be less susceptible to erosion.