Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) is obtained through the crossing of wheat (Triticum ssp.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) and is characterized by high yield potential, good health and grain value, and high tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Poland is a very important region for progress in triticale breeding, since it is home to most cultivars, and numerous genetic studies on triticale have been carried out. Despite the tremendous interest in triticale among both breeders and researchers, there are no studies assessing the adaptation of cultivars to environmental conditions across growing seasons. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cultivar, management, location and growing season on grain yield. At the same time, this approach provides a new way to determine whether there is any dependency between the eight seasons, and to find the cause of the yield response to environmental conditions in a given growing season.
High Nature Value farmlands in Europe are of greatest importance in the conservation of biodiversity. Their environmental importance has been recognized for some time, and has been studied mostly in Western Europe. This article describes the results of multivariate statistical analyses performed on data (13 variables) collected from the latest National Agricultural Census and the CORINE database to provide a typology of farmlands with respect to their nature value at municipality level (LAU 2, Local Administrative Units level 2) across Poland. All municipalities were grouped into eight categories (types). Some of the farmland categories were considered to be High Nature Value farmland (HNVf). The following interrelated variables mostly contributed to the identification of HNVf: share of protected areas and forest, grassland, arable land and fallow, farmland cover diversity, and rate of nitrogen fertilization. HNVf was identified in 958 out of 2173 municipalities, covering 44% of the territory of Poland. The identified HNVf also overlaps partially (61%) with LFAs (Less Favored Areas). Farmlands with the highest nature value are located mostly across mountain and hilly areas, close to forests, and protected areas on lowlands and river valleys. The identified HNV farmlands are characterized by low-input farming systems and a large share of semi-natural habitats with a high landscape mosaic.
Two groups of soil texture classification, differing in limit diameters for particular soil fractions, are used in Poland. The older groups of classifications consider soil particles as < 1 mm and divide them into sand (1.0–0.1 mm), silt (0.1–0.02 mm) and fine or flowable particles (< 0.02 mm). These classifications are used, in a version which originated in 1956 and here denominated as PTG/Musierowicz 1956 in land quality assessment and elaboration of soil agricultural maps. Newer versions of these classifications – professional standard BN-78/9180-11 (1978) and division of soils in agronomic categories described in 1986 – are used in fertilizer recommendations and in agricultural drought monitoring. According to the new soil texture classification PTG 2008, the upper diameter limit for soil particles is 2 mm and these parts are divided into sand (2.0–0.05 mm), silt (0.05–0.002 mm) and clay (<0.002 mm). This classification is compatible with soil texture classification elaborated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and most frequently applied worldwide. In this paper, the results of analyses of 1087 soil samples representing almost all granulometric groups existing in older and newer Polish soil texture classifications were considered. On the base of the current and earlier studies, the table with probability of occurrence of granulometric group PTG 2008 or texture class USDA for particular granulometric groups BN-78/9180-11 was prepared. For majority of granulometric groups (pl, ps, psp, pgl, pgmp, gp, gpp, gl, glp, gc, gcp, ip, płi) determined on the base of BN-78/9180-11, it is possible to determine their granulometric group/texture class according to PTG 2008/USDA correctly and, frequently, unambiguously. For granulometric groups pglp, pgm, gs, gsp i and płg it is possible to propose with great probability more than one equivalent according to PTG 2008/USDA, and in other cases more studies are recommended.