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  • Author: Marcin Starzak x
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Open access

Marcin Starzak, Hubert Makaruk and Anna Starzak

Abstract

Introduction. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a training programme aimed to enhance toe-toboard consistency on footfall variability and performance in the long jump. Material and methods. The study involved 36 male physical education students. The experimental group participated in a 12-week training programme, whereas the control group was limited to taking part in the classes held at university. All participants performed 6 long jump trials during two testing sessions. The kinematic parameters were assessed using the Optojump Next device and were further analysed to determine the variability of footfall placement during the approach run. Results. The analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in footfall variability in the experimental group between the pre-test and post-test. After the completion of the training programme, the participants significantly (p < 0.05) improved their take-off accuracy. Additionally, they significantly (p < 0.05) increased their velocity in the last five steps before take-off and the effective distance of the jump (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that through specific training, it is possible to improve the consistency of the steps in the acceleration phase of the approach run in the long jump. Moreover, decreasing footfall variability helps achieve a more stable step pattern which may be beneficial for greater accuracy at the take-off board and makes it possible to increase step velocity at the final stage of the approach run.

Open access

Hubert Makaruk, Andrzej Mastalerz, Marcin Starzak and Mariusz Buszta

Abstract

Introduction. This study examined the changes in the kinematic parameters of long jump-specific technical exercise performed in different training conditions.

Material and methods. The study involved a group of young female athletes who volunteered to participate in the research. The key variables for long jump performance were measured using the Xsens MVN system. A three-way ANOVA (general linear model with repeated measures; factors: surface × hurdle × number of jumps) was used to determine if significant differences existed between the testing conditions.

Results. The main finding of this study was that the tartan surface resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) greater velocities of the centre of mass of the body (CM) or parts of the athlete’s body than the grass surface. The second important finding was that the hurdles condition provided significantly (p < 0.05) greater velocity of the CM when landing and shorter contact time compared to the condition without hurdles.

Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that technical exercise should be performed on harder surfaces such as a tartan track rather than softer ones (e.g. grass) due to more beneficial movement characteristics and greater potential for the automaticity of movement during specific training tasks.

Open access

Makaruk Hubert, Marcin Starzak and Jerzy Sadowski

Abstract

Purpose. While take-off accuracy and approach run velocity are known determinants of long and triple jump performance, the interaction of these factors with step length adjustment (SLA) is not as clear. Methods. The study involved 39 male and 31 female national-level long and triple jumpers. The Optojump Next device was used to analyse jump attempts. Three groups were identified according to maximum variability of footfall placement (HVF - high, MVF - medium, LVF - Low) as well as three groups regarding the onset of step length adjustment (ESLA - early, MSLA - mid, LSLA - late). Results. Take-off accuracy in the LVF and MVF groups was greater compared with the HVF group among females. Among males, the LVF group made significantly (p < 0.05) fewer foul attempts than the HVF group. The ESLA group achieved significantly (p < 0.05) higher velocity during the last five steps of the approach run than the LSLA group in men. Conclusions. Coaches should implement exercises targeting SLA in long and triple jump training exercises to improve performance.

Open access

Hubert Makaruk, Marak Porter, Marcin Starzak and Edward Szymczak

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in selected kinematics in the long jump, triple jump, and pole vault to highlight the unique movement pattern characteristics in the approach runs utilised in these events. Material and methods. Data were collected during 1 international and 2 national competitions from 36 male athletes (12 in each event) using an Optojump Next system. Results. This study showed the long jumpers achieved the highest mean step velocity, with the pole vaulters showing the lowest velocity. The velocity of the last step before the take-off was greater (p < 0.05) than the velocity of the penultimate step in all groups of athletes. The length of the last step before the take-off was greater (p < 0.01) than the length of the penultimate step in long jump and pole vault athletes compared to the triple jumpers. The long jumpers demonstrated less contact time (p < 0.01) than the pole vaulters. The contact time of the take-off leg was shorter (p < 0.01) compared to that of the non-take-off leg in pole vaulters. The pole vaulters demonstrated less flight time (p < 0.05) compared to the triple jumpers. Lastly, the flight time during the last step before the take-off was shorter (p < 0.01) than the flight time during the penultimate step in all groups. Conclusions. These findings revealed that each of the track and field jumping events required a distinctive approach run. Therefore, training workouts need to be designed specifically to train the unique gait pattern of the long jump, triple jump, and pole vault.