There are a total of several million lakes in the world, which includes only approximately 30 crater lakes. Due to this extreme global rarity, they are the subject of research in many scientific disciplines. In spite of the widespread interest in them, however, many issues still require detailed investigation. In the case of the Morasko crater lake (Poland), hydrological research has been weakly developed so far. The undertaken analysis, which employed a complex research procedure involving the use of georadar, geological corings and bathymetric measurements, aimed to determine the primary bottom of the lake, and further to determine the scale and rate of its evolution. The modern water level suggests that the lake basin is currently approximately 55% filled in with organic matter, and the rate of its sedimentation in the deepest place can be estimated at approximately 0.8 mm·y−1.
In this paper, we present a rigorous methodology for quantifying the anonymity provided by Tor against a variety of structural attacks, i.e., adversaries that corrupt Tor nodes and thereby perform eavesdropping attacks to deanonymize Tor users. First, we provide an algorithmic approach for computing the anonymity impact of such structural attacks against Tor. The algorithm is parametric in the considered path selection algorithm and is, hence, capable of reasoning about variants of Tor and alternative path selection algorithms as well. Second, we present formalizations of various instantiations of structural attacks against Tor and show that the computed anonymity impact of each of these adversaries indeed constitutes a worst-case anonymity bound for the cryptographic realization of Tor. Third, we use our methodology to conduct a rigorous, largescale evaluation of Tor’s anonymity which establishes worst-case anonymity bounds against various structural attacks for Tor and for alternative path selection algorithms such as DistribuTor, SelekTOR, and LASTor. This yields the first rigorous anonymity comparison between different path selection algorithms. As part of our analysis, we quantify the anonymity impact of a path selection transition phase, i.e., a small number of users decides to run an alternative algorithm while the vast majority still uses the original one. The source code of our implementation is publicly available.
The identification of drought-sensitive areas (DSAs) in floodplain Fluvisols of high textural pedodiversity is crucial for sustainable land management purposes. During extended drought periods moisture replenishment is only available by capillary rise from the groundwater. However, moisture flux is often hindered by capillary barriers in the interface between layers of contrasting textures. The results of HYDRUS-1D simulations run on multilayered soil profiles were integrated into textural maps to determine the spatial distribution of water dynamics on the floodplain of the Drava River (SW Hungary). Model runs and field data revealed limited moisture replenishment by capillary rise when both contrasting textural interfaces and sandy layers are present in the profile. By implementing these textural and hydraulic relations, a drought vulnerability map (DSA map) of the operational area of the Old Drava Programme (ODP) was developed. According to the spatial distribution of soils of reduced capillary rise, 52% of the ODP area is likely threatened by droughts. Our model results are adaptable for optimisation of land- and water-management practices along the floodplains of low-energy and medium-sized rivers under humid continental and maritime climates.