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Marcin Polak

Biometry of young White Wagtails (Motacilla alba) and Yellow Wagtails (Motacilla flava) caught in the Gulf of Gdańsk region during autumn migration

Biometrics of juvenile 760 White Wagtails and 714 Yellow Wagtails migrating through the Gulf of Gdańsk region in autumn were studied between 1990 and 2000. In both species distributions of wing length, body mass and indices of wing shape were unimodal, with only one exception - in the White Wagtail the wing length distribution showed two peaks caused by sexual dimorphism. The mean body mass and reserves of fat in both species were low in comparison to other stopover sites. There were significant differences in mean weight between birds caught in the morning and in the evening. The majority of birds behave as energy minimising migrants and migrate with low fat reserves in small steps.

Open access

Grzegorz Grzywaczewski, Jarosław Wiącek and Marcin Polak

Autumn Passage of Waders (Charadrii) in the Middle Vistula Valley (Kaliszany, Central Poland)

The phenology and dynamics of wader migration were studied at a stopover area in the middle Vistula Valley (Kaliszany ringing station, 51°05'N, 21°48'E, central Poland). The study was conducted during autumn passage seasons of 1993-1996 and 1999-2001. At this time 364 counts were done from mid-July to the end of October. Altogether 23 030 waders of 27 species were recorded within the study period. The most numerous species observed were: the Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) — 49% of all birds, Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) — 16% and Greenshank (Tringa nebularia) — 9%. Species constituting ca 2-4% of all noted waders each were: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina), Spotted Redshank (T. erythropus), Wood Sandpiper (T. glareola), Curlew (Numenius arquata), Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) and Green Sandpiper (T. ochropus). The proportion of the remaining species did not exceed 2%. The pattern of autumn migration dynamics is presented for the dominant species.

Open access

Jarosław Wiącek, Marcin Polak and Mariusz Niedźwiedź

The diet composition of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco in the Kozłówka Forest (eastern Poland)

The diet composition of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco breeding in the Kozłówka Forest in eastern Poland was analysed. Materials were collected from seven nest-boxes in 2007. The material contained the food remains of 24 species: twelve rodent, two insectivore, one bat, three bird, two fish, as well as three insects and frogs. Among 286 identified prey items, small mammals were represented as dominant group in a food (78.7%). Frogs to made 13.6% all of prey, birds (2.8%), fishes (1.7%), insects (3.2%). The main components of food were forest species of rodents (Apodemus and Clethrionomys). Frogs and fishes in the food were only presence in the wet territories with fish ponds and meadows in the small river valleys. Food from the Kozłówka forest contained 8.5% fishes by biomass. To our knowledge, it is the highest level of this food component recorded in European literature.

Open access

Magdalena Derewianka-Polak, Grzegorz Polak, Marcin Bobiński, Wiesława Bednarek, Jan Kotarski, Marta Makara-Studzińska, Aneta Gerhant and Marcin Olajossy


The objective of the study was to assess the level of patients' need for information about the planned gynecologic surgery.

Material and Methods. The number of 173 patients preparing to undergo planned gynecological procedure were qualified for the study. The participation in the survey was entirely voluntary. Each patient was asked to fulfill the survey conducted using the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale- APAIS that enables the estimation of the patient’s need for surgery-related information. Furthermore patients’ clinical and demographic data was collected. Results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools: the Shapiro-Wilk W-test (for distribution of the studied parameters) and the Mann-Whitney U-test (for comparing two independent groups). P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results. It was shown that premenopausal women have a greater need for information about the planned surgery than postmenopausal patients (p<0.05). Patients, who have never been operated, displayed a significantly greater need (p=0.04) for information about their planned surgery in relation to women who have already undergone surgery. The patient’s age, the phase of the menstrual cycle, the education level, the marital status, as well as the preoperative diagnosis and the type of the planned surgery did not affect the level of the preoperative information requirement (p>0.05).

Conclusions. The high level of the need for information about the planned surgery characterizes premenopausal patients and those operated for the first time.

Open access

Aneta Gerhant, Ewa Krzewicka-Romaniuk, Dagna Siedlecka, Magdalena Derewianka-Polak and Marcin Olajossy


Objective: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the range of socio-demographic variables, selected clinical variables, temperament and character traits, coping with stress strategies and the level of aggression in alcohol addicts with or without a history of suicide attempt(s).

Methods: The study involved 90 people addicted to alcohol, treated in inpatient alcohol dependence treatment program. In order to collect data on socio - demographic variables and selected clinical variables, a self-made questionnaire was used. The severity of alcohol dependence was verified using the MAST and SADD scales. Characteristics of temperament and character were examined with the TCI questionnaire. The BPAQ and COPE questionnaires were used to examine the level of aggression and styles of coping with stress.

Results:Out of 90 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrom, 20% had attempted suicide in the past. The respondents with a history of suicide attempts were statistically significantly younger, were characterized by a younger age of alcohol drinking initiation and the initiation of regular alcohol drinking, and a greater severity of alcohol dependence in the MAST and SADD scales. A significantly larger percentage of respondents who had attempted suicide inflicted self-injury in the past, used other psychoactive substances as well as hypnotics and sedatives. The subjects with a suicide attempt in the interview obtained statistically significantly higher scores in terms of the level of aggression, harm avoidance and self-directedness, and more often used the style of coping with stress based on avoidance and accepting the situation.

Conclusions: The obtained results correspond with data available in the literature and may provide a foundation for theoretical models explaining the phenomenon of suicidal behavior in alcohol addicts as well as for suicide prevention programs in this group of patients.

Open access

Andrzej Wrobel, Malgorzata Korzeniowska, Agnieszka Polak, Marcin Szczygiel and Rafal Wrobel


This is one of a series of articles about pharmacists in Lublin district, in the 19th and 20th c. The first recorded owner of the pharmacy in Adamów was Aleksander Biernacki (1851-1897), who passed it onto his son-in-law, Aleksander Rogoziński (1873-1941), and who, in turn, passed it onto his son, Stanisław Rogoziński (1913-1998), married to Tatiana (1918-1998). This family's history is an example of the history of Polish intelligentsia in the second half of 19th c., in the times of the Russian partition, World War I, 1918-1939, World War II and until contemporary times.