The aim of the research was to estimate changes in soil properties caused by intensive recreation and tourism in protected areas within the urban borders of Rzeszów (south-east Poland). The research was conducted on two objects: (1) on protected areas of the Lisia Góra Nature Reserve and (2) along the Wisłok Valley. The difference in anthropopressure between the areas was taken into consideration. Soil penetration resistance and moisture were analysed in the spring and autumn period. Soil texture, pH, total carbon, and electrical conductivity (EC) in a 1:10 soil:water suspension were measured in soil material collected in spring. The ion content (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) was measured in the same suspension with an ion chromatograph. There were significant correlations (determined by the Pearson coefficient) between soil acidity, EC, total exchangeable bases, ions of calcium and magnesium, and soil penetration resistance. A significant difference was found in soil penetration resistance between objects (higher in the Wisłok Valley area) and between the distances from the border of the intensively managed area (a decrease as the distance increased). The Z coefficient (the ratio of sodium ions, the sum of calcium and magnesium ions) was significantly lower for the the Lisia Góra Nature Reserve sites.
Although the utilization of pesticides accounted for the group of persistent organic pollutants was banned years ago, a count of pesticides are still directly or indirectly a source of contamination in Europe. One of them, simazine is still allowed for use in the United States. Aim of this experiment was development of soil remediation method which could be utilized for degradation triazine class pesticides – simazine was an example used. A method for soil remediation based on ozonation processes in fluidized bed was successfully utilized for removal of simazine from contaminated soil. For the study soil highly contaminated with simazine up to the concentration of 0.05% w/w was used. Determination of the pesticide levels in soil was performed using extraction and gas chromatography. The method allowed 80% reduction of pesticide concentration level. The degradation of pesticide was accompanied with changes of physicochemical parameters of soil, i.e., decrease of pH and a increase of nitrates concentration. Despite changes in physicochemical properties of the soil, the developed method proved to be highly effective and can be successfully applied on an industrial scale.
More and more frequently beer is used as an attractant in traps to eliminate the slug Arion lusitanicus auct. non-Mabille. The smell of beer is not indifferent to animals. Hence it is highly probable that it affects the physiological processes in the slug’s body. The aim of our study was to examine whether the smell can induce changes in respiration activity (measured as CO2 emission) of adult individuals of Arion lusitanicus. The results showed that all the tested brands of beer caused an increase in CO2 emission. Furthermore, in all the samples of studied brands of beer, this increase in CO2 emission correlated negatively to the content of the following compounds: acrylic acid N- hydroxysuccinimide ester, decanoic acid, (9Z,12Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 2-(acetyloxy)-1- [(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl ester, bicyclo[4,1,0]heptane and ethyl caprylate.