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Open access

Justyna Baraniak, Radosław Kujawski and Marcin Ożarowski

Summary

Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

Open access

Marcin Ożarowski, Jędrzej Przystanowicz and Artur Adamczak

Abstract

Preparations from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (common butterbur) have a long history of use in folk medicine in treatment of several diseases as anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic drugs. Extracts from this species are of interest to researchers in the field of phytopharmacology due to their biologically active compounds, particularly two eremophilane sesquiterpenes (petasin and isopetasin), which are contained not only in rhizomes and roots, but also in leaves. Moreover, P. hybridusa contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which showed hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Hence, special extracts devoid of alkaloids obtained by sub- and super-critic carbon dioxide extraction were used in the preclinical, clinical studies and phytotherapy. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of pharmacological as well as clinical trials of P. hybridus, carried out in 2000-2013. Also several studies of other species used in non-European countries have been included. Besides, the botanical description of Petasites genus and phytochemical characteristic of P. hybridus and toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as chemical profile of patented commercial extracts from rhizomes, roots and leaves of this species used in European phytotherapy have been performed. In this review, attention has also been paid to the promising and potential application of special extracts of P. hybridus not only in the prevention of migraine, treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms, asthma and hypertension, but also in prevention and slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases developing with the inflammatory process in the CNS as a new therapeutic strategy. In fact, there is already an evidence of promising properties of P. hybridus extracts and sesquiterpens - decrease in the prostaglandins and leukotrienes release, inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity, as well as antagonism of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. In order to explain the new mechanisms of action of P. hybridus extracts in the CNS and their future application in phytotherapy of diseases with neuroinflammatory process, further studies should be performed.

Open access

Radosław Kujawski, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Kania, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Marcin Ożarowski, Michał Cichocki, Ewa Spoz and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak

Summary

In last centuries, human diet has been modified due to changes in the technological, economic, and cultural mode of the social life. The rapid development of the technology and advances in food production and processing of plants resulted in changes in the structure of consumption. The consequence is an growing interest among researchers, but also among consumers in searching for new alternatives to classical pharmacology, preventive solutions, and therapeutic strategies of age related, chronic diseases and cancer. In this paper, the authors have attempted to assess the benefits of usage in diet cold-pressed oils extracted from the seeds of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) with particular emphasis on the evidence of possible use of B. napus oil, and other bio-active substances contained therein, in the prevention and symptomatic treatment of prostate diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The authors postulate that the information presented in this paper may be important and helpful in the development of new, effective and safe forms of prevention and treatment of progressive age-related disorders (phytotherapeutics) and nutritional strategies (dietary supplements) based on seeds oil of Brassicace family representatives, especially Brassica napus (pollen).

Open access

Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Karolina Dziekan, Danuta Procyk, Małgorzata Górska-Paukszta, Aleksandra Kowalska, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Marcin Ożarowski and Bogusław Czerny

Summary

Introduction: Despite widespread use of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba, the data on the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are very limited. Therefore, we postulate that P. ginseng and G. biloba may modulate the activity and content of cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diverse xenobiotic substances. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the influence of herbal remedies on the expression level of CYP enzymes and transcriptional factors. Methods: Male Wistar rats were given standardized Panax ginseng (30 mg/kg p.o.) or standardized Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by realtime PCR method. Results: Our results showed a decrease of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) mRNA level after P. ginseng extract treatment. The CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) expression was also reduced. Additionally, after 10 days of the treatment with P. ginseng an increase of CYP1A1 (homologue to human CYP1A1) and CYP1A2 (homologue to human CYP1A2) expression was observed. Moreover, G. biloba extract also caused an increase of expression level for CYP1A1, CYP2C6, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that herbal extracts can modulate the expression of transcriptional factors and CYP enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and chemical carcinogenesis.

Open access

Przemyslaw M. Mrozikiewicz, Anna Bogacz, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Radoslaw Kujawski, Przemyslaw L. Mikolajczak, Marcin Ozarowski, Boguslaw Czerny, Beata Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska and Edmund Grzeskowiak

Abstract

There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB

Open access

Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Marcin Ożarowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Beata Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Teresa Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Bogusław Czerny, Edmund Grześkowiak and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz

Abstract

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is widely used as a popular beverage and dietary supplement that can significantly reduce the risk of many diseases. Despite the widespread use of green tea, the data regarding the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the influence of standardized green tea extract (GTE) containing 61% catechins and 0.1% caffeine on the expression level of rat CYP genes and the corresponding transcription factors expression by realtime PCR. The findings showed that GTE resulted in a significant decrease of CYP2C6 expression level by 68% (p<0.001). In case of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2, the mRNA levels were also reduced by extract but in a lesser degree compared to CYP2C6. Simultaneously the significant increase in the mRNA level of CAR, RXR and GR factors was observed by 54% (p<0.05), 79% (p<0.001) and 23% (p<0.05), respectively after 10 days of green tea extract administration. In addition, there was noted a small increase of CYP1A1 expression level by 21% (p>0.05) was noted. No statistically significant differences were observed for CYP1A2 and CYP2D1/2. In the same study we observed an increase in amount of ARNT gene transcript by 27% (p<0.05) in the long-term use. However, green tea extract showed the ability to stimulate HNF-1α both after 3 and 10 days of treatment by 30% (p<0.05) and 80% (p<0.001), respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the concentration of HNF-4α cDNA. These results suggest that GTE may change the expression of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) and may participate in clinically significant interactions with drugs metabolized by these enzymes.

Open access

Marcin Ożarowski, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Mikołajczak, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Aurelia Pietrowiak, Wojciech Białas, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Górska-Paukszta, Waldemar Buchwald, Bogdan Kędzia, Anna Krajewska-Patan and Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz

Summary

Introduction: Our study is a part of a trend of studies on the antioxidative properties of Chelidonium majus extracts or their fractions suggesting that antioxidant activities may depend on total flavonoid and/or alkaloid contents.

Objective: This study focused on the examination of antioxidative activities of full water extract, non-protein fraction and protein fraction of the extract from aerial parts of mature plants and young seedlings.

Methods: Total flavonoid and alkaloid contents were evaluated by spectrometric methods. Quantitative determination of chelidonine, coptisine, sanquinarine, berberine was made by HPLC-UV. The antioxidative activities were evaluated using (1) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), (2) 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and (3) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods.

Results: All concentrations of herb extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than extract from seedlings. Two antioxidant tests (DPPH, FRAP) showed that full water extract from herb had the highest antioxidant activity, while its non-protein fraction and protein fraction showed lower antioxidant activity. It was found that the full water extract from herb contained the highest concentrations of flavonoids and alkaloids when compared with other samples.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chelidonine and coptisine especially could be responsible for the observed changes in the extract antioxidant activity, because these alkaloids were determined in the highest concentration in full water extract from herb. It cannot be also excluded that the observed variables values between extracts and their fractions from herb or from seedlings may also be the result of interactions between flavonoids and other chemical compounds.

Open access

Michał Szulc, Piotr Mularczyk, Radosław Kujawski, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Ewa Kamińska, Bogna Geppert, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Kania-Dobrowolska, Marcin Ożarowski, Anna Krajewska-Patan and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak

Summary

Introduction: In recent years, the search for potential neuroprotective properties of salidroside and its ability to influence the activity of nervous system become the subject of intense studies of many research groups. None of these studies, however, include an attempt to determine the effect of salidroside on the course of alcohol tolerance in vivo.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of salidroside to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in rats, determining whether the effect of its action may occur in a dose-dependent manner, reducing both metabolic and central tolerance without affecting body temperature in control rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected daily with ethanol at a dose of 3 g/kg for 9 consecutive days to produce ethanol tolerance. Salidroside in two doses (4.5 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg b.w.) or vehiculum was administered orally. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th day a hypothermic effect of ethanol was measured, while the loss of righting reflex procedure was performed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th day. On the 9th day rats were treated with salidroside, sacrificed 1 h after ethanol injections and blood was collected for blood-ethanol concentration measurement.

Results: Salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, whereas insignificant elevation of blood-ethanol concentration was observed. The dose of 4.5 mg/kg b.w. had minimal effect, only small inhibition of tolerance to hypothermic action was observed. Salidroside affected neither body mass growth nor body temperature in non-alcoholic (control) rats.

Conclusions: Results of the study indicate that salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic effect of ethanol. Observed inhibition of tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol seems to be associated with salidroside influence on the central nervous system. A comprehensive explanation of the abovementioned observations requires further pharmacological and pharmacodynamic studies.