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Open access

Marcin Nowak and Bartłomiej Noszczyk

The aim of the study

Patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome may be characterised by an atypical clinical picture. They assess complaints as becoming less bothersome than in the past. It seems that this may influence the diagnostic value of some clinical tests used in physical examinations.

was the selection of the most reliable clinical tests in a group of patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome.

Material and methods. The material comprised 38 cases of severe form of the disease in a group of 37 prospective patients. The methods consisted in the evaluation of the rate of positive results of selected clinical tests, and in the comparison of their statistical correlation with selected parameters of median nerve conduction.

Results. The study results indicated that high incidence of two-point discrimination disorders showed a correlation with the sensory conduction parameters, including the median-ulnar sensory latency difference. The Durkan's and Phalen's tests were positive in almost all patients with advanced carpal tunnel. The Katz hand diagram revealed significantly enhanced sensitivity in the “probable” pattern.

Conclusions. We speculate that the two-point discrimination, evaluated with the use of a simple paper clip, enables the selection of a group of patients with severe form of the syndrome for further differentiation. The tool used for facilitating the differential diagnosis is the Katz hand diagram. The Durkan's and Phalen's tests have an equally high value. However, they show no correlation with the conduction parameters, as measured by EMG.

Open access

Marcin Nobis and Arkadiusz Nowak

New data to the vascular flora of the central Pamir Alai Mountains (Tajikistan, Central Asia). Part II

The paper presents the distributional data of three species: Amaranthus deflexus L., Euphorbia maculata L., Rubus praecox Bertol. s. l., new to the flora of the central Pamir Alai Mts in Tajikistan. A list of localities of the species in the Tajik Pamir Alai Mts and habitat preferences are presented. Their distribution is mapped and illustrations of the species are provided.

Open access

Anna Cwener and Marcin Nowak

Actual State and Changes of Flora and Vegetation in the Broczówka Steppe Reserve

This paper presents floristic characterization of xerothermic plant associations and analysis of changes of flora within Broczówka steppe reserve. The floristic research was carried out in 2004-2009. Numerous species that were noted here almost 30 years ago were not found in the present study, the size of other populations decreased. Nevertheless, many plant species occurring in the reserve are rare, endangered or protected. Six major plant associations, impoverished form of two ones and one plant community are distinguished in the whole area of the reserve. Occurrence of two plant associations was not confirmed.

Open access

Arkadiusz Nowak and Marcin Nobis

Tentative list of endemic vascular plants of the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan: distribution, habitat preferences and conservation status of species

Based on literature data and own fieldwork in the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan (Middle Asia), the taxonomic structure, distribution, habitat preferences as well as conservation status of a group of 86 species of vascular plants of endemic character are presented. The tentative list of exclusive endemic plants for the Zeravshan Mts was compiled. They belong to 25 families. The richest is the genus Astragalus with 11 species followed by Cousinia (8), Allium (5) and Scutellaria (3). The study has shown that the eastern subregions of the range are richest in endemics, especially, the Mogien-Daria, Seven Lakes, Pastrud-Daria, Ksztut and Yagnob valleys and Kuli-Kalon Plateau. The endemics studied are stenochoric species with very small number of known locations, mainly between one and two. The mean value of the range of the studied endemics is ca. 1140 km2. The most numerous endemic groups have been recorded at altitudes of around 1,800-2,100 and 2,700-3000 m a. s. l. The habitats harboring the richest group of endemics are rock screes, alpine forests, steppes and semi-savannas, alpine meadows, solid rocks, xerothermophilous shrubs and pastures. Almost half of the endemics have narrow ecological amplitude occurring in only one habitat type. The most important threats to Tajik endemics are intensive grazing and erosion of soils, as well as denudation. Most vulnerable types of vegetation to the human impact are forest and scrub communities. For effective protection of endemics in the Zeravshan Mts, a national park and a net of nature reserves has to be funded.

Open access

Marcin Szega and Grzegorz Tadeusz Nowak

Abstract

In generalized method of data reconciliation as equations of conditions beside substance and energy balances can be used equations which don’t have precisely the status of conservation lows. Empirical coefficients in these equations are traded as unknowns’ values. To this kind of equations, in application of the generalized method of data reconciliation in supercritical power unit, can be classified: steam flow capacity of a turbine for a group of stages, adiabatic internal efficiency of group of stages, equations for pressure drop in pipelines and equations for heat transfer in regeneration heat exchangers. Mathematical model of a power unit was developed in the code Thermoflex. Using this model the off-design calculation has been made in several points of loads for the power unit. Using these calculations identification of unknown values and empirical coefficients for generalized method of data reconciliation used in power unit has been made. Additional equations of conditions will be used in the generalized method of data reconciliation which will be used in optimization of measurement placement in redundant measurement system in power unit for new control systems

Open access

Arkadiusz Nowak, Sylwia Nowak and Marcin Nobis

Abstract

Rice field weed communities occurring in central Nepal are presented in this study. The research was focussed on the classification of segetal plant communities occurring in paddy fields, which had been poorly investigated from a geobotanical standpoint. In all, 108 phytosociological relevés were sampled, using the Braun-Blanquet method. The analyses classified the vegetation into 9 communities, including 7 associations and one subassociation. Four new plant associations and one new subassociation were proposed: Elatinetum triandro-ambiguae, Mazo pumili-Lindernietum ciliatae, Mazo pumili-Lindernietum ciliatae caesulietosum axillaris, Rotaletum rotundifoliae and Ammanietum pygmeae. Due to species composition and habitat preferences all phytocoenoses were included into the Oryzetea sativae class and the Ludwigion hyssopifolio- octovalvis alliance. As in other rice field phytocoenoses, the main discrimination factors for the plots are depth of water, soil trophy and species richness. The altitudinal distribution also has a significant influence and separates the Rotaletum rotundifoliae and Elatinetum triandro-ambiguae associations. The study shows that anthropogenic rice fields can harbour relatively rich rush and water vegetation. More than 80 species were noted in the vegetation plots. Several of them are considered to be extremely rare and have been recorded on the world Red List.

Open access

Marcin Tokarski, Grzegorz Nowak and Cezary Draus

Abstract

The article presents the classification software according to the international product description standard ETIM. The software has been designed for Polish manufacturers or wholesalers who want to implement this standard in their companies. Classification is done in Polish language, on the basis of information contained in the company’s product files. Application features several mechanisms to facilitate the creation of product description, like suggestion of the appropriate class or automatic recognition of values of the required parameters. With this application, the tedious and time consuming job of classification becomes easier and can be done much quicker.

Open access

Marcin Nobis and Arkadiusz Nowak

Abstract

The paper presents descriptions of two new taxa, Stipa ×brevicallosa var. hissarensis and Stipa orientalis var. ladakhorum. Both of them differ from the nominal varieties in having densely pubescent (not glabrous or scabrous) leaves of vegetative shoots. First of the above mentioned taxa occurs in Tajikistan (Pamir Alai Mts) whereas the second in India (Western Himalayas). Images of type specimens of both taxa are provided.

Open access

Arkadiusz Nowak, Marcin Nobis, Małgorzata Gębala and Justyna Luks

Abstract

The paper discusses the floristic structure, distribution and habitat requirements of a shrubby community of Salicetum schugnanicae ass. nova. The potential range of the association is described within the Pamir Alai Mts in Middle Asia. The biotope of this community comprises alpine, humid tall-herbs with shrubby physiognomy on relatively flat slopes of mountain valleys. Th plots of the association were found at elevations between 2,500 and 3,500 m above sea level. Phytocoenoses of the Salicetum schugnanicae are characterised by an apparent domination of a characteristic species Salix schugnanicae in shrub layer. The density of the willow thicket is moderate, from 35 to 90%. The herb layer of the community is moderately rich in species and consists mainly of taxa typical for Mulgedio-Aconitetea class (Angelica komarovii, Codonopsis clematoides, Geranium collinum, G. regelii, Heracleum lehmannianum and Polygonum coriarium) and Nardion alliance (e.g. Blysmus compressus, Carex orbicularis subsp. hissaro-darvasica, Dactylorhiza umbrosa, Heleocharis meridionalis, Pedicularis peduncularis, Primula iljinii, Swertia juzepczukii). Also the moss layer is abundant as it is typically for peaty or boggy habitats similar to alpine mires. The most frequent bryophytes noted in the plots are: Brachythecium mildeanum, Calliergonella cuspidata or Cratoneuron commutatum. The described willow association is one of the rarest and most rapidly disappearing plant communit in Tajikistan. This makes the association of highest conservation priority and special management attention.

Open access

Ewa Dziadczyk, Marcin Domaciuk, Magdalena Nowak, Ewa Szczuka and Józef Bednara

The Development of the Female Gametophyte in Fragaria x Ananassa Duch. cv. Selva

Megasporogenesis and female gametophyte development were investigated in ovules of the everbearing strawberry Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Selva. Observations of thin sections revealed that ovule development starts from the formation of a nucellus and coincides in time with the beginning of receptacle overgrowth. The most characteristic feature during nucellus differentiation is the formation of a multicellular archesporium, beginning from at least two cells. Analysis of female gametophyte development indicated that in addition to the meiotic mode, female gametophytes develop by an apomeiotic mode of Antennaria type. Asynchronous development of female gametophytes of different origin occurs. The mature, eight-nucleate, seven-celled female gametophyte of meiotic origin is cylindrical and slightly curved. It occupies the central part of the nucellus. The egg apparatus, consisting of an egg cell and two synergids, is formed in the micropylar part of the female gametophyte; the opposite chalazal pole is occupied by antipodal cells. Besides the ovule in which only one seven-celled female gametophyte finally develops, ovules with a different number of cells were observed to initiate female gametophyte development. Some ovules contain a nucellus with a tetrad of linearly arranged megaspores surrounded by enlarged cells, each of which has the potential to develop into an apomictic female gametophyte. After degeneration of some post-meiotic cells or developmentally advanced female gametophytes, some of the chalazal cells initiated female gametophyte development.