New data to the vascular flora of the central Pamir Alai Mountains (Tajikistan, Central Asia). Part II
The paper presents the distributional data of three species: Amaranthus deflexus L., Euphorbia maculata L., Rubus praecox Bertol. s. l., new to the flora of the central Pamir Alai Mts in Tajikistan. A list of localities of the species in the Tajik Pamir Alai Mts and habitat preferences are presented. Their distribution is mapped and illustrations of the species are provided.
Actual State and Changes of Flora and Vegetation in the Broczówka Steppe Reserve
This paper presents floristic characterization of xerothermic plant associations and analysis of changes of flora within Broczówka steppe reserve. The floristic research was carried out in 2004-2009. Numerous species that were noted here almost 30 years ago were not found in the present study, the size of other populations decreased. Nevertheless, many plant species occurring in the reserve are rare, endangered or protected. Six major plant associations, impoverished form of two ones and one plant community are distinguished in the whole area of the reserve. Occurrence of two plant associations was not confirmed.
Tentative list of endemic vascular plants of the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan: distribution, habitat preferences and conservation status of species
Based on literature data and own fieldwork in the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan (Middle Asia), the taxonomic structure, distribution, habitat preferences as well as conservation status of a group of 86 species of vascular plants of endemic character are presented. The tentative list of exclusive endemic plants for the Zeravshan Mts was compiled. They belong to 25 families. The richest is the genus Astragalus with 11 species followed by Cousinia (8), Allium (5) and Scutellaria (3). The study has shown that the eastern subregions of the range are richest in endemics, especially, the Mogien-Daria, Seven Lakes, Pastrud-Daria, Ksztut and Yagnob valleys and Kuli-Kalon Plateau. The endemics studied are stenochoric species with very small number of known locations, mainly between one and two. The mean value of the range of the studied endemics is ca. 1140 km2. The most numerous endemic groups have been recorded at altitudes of around 1,800-2,100 and 2,700-3000 m a. s. l. The habitats harboring the richest group of endemics are rock screes, alpine forests, steppes and semi-savannas, alpine meadows, solid rocks, xerothermophilous shrubs and pastures. Almost half of the endemics have narrow ecological amplitude occurring in only one habitat type. The most important threats to Tajik endemics are intensive grazing and erosion of soils, as well as denudation. Most vulnerable types of vegetation to the human impact are forest and scrub communities. For effective protection of endemics in the Zeravshan Mts, a national park and a net of nature reserves has to be funded.
Rice field weed communities occurring in central Nepal are presented in this study. The research was focussed on the classification of segetal plant communities occurring in paddy fields, which had been poorly investigated from a geobotanical standpoint. In all, 108 phytosociological relevés were sampled, using the Braun-Blanquet method. The analyses classified the vegetation into 9 communities, including 7 associations and one subassociation. Four new plant associations and one new subassociation were proposed: Elatinetum triandro-ambiguae, Mazo pumili-Lindernietum ciliatae, Mazo pumili-Lindernietum ciliatae caesulietosum axillaris, Rotaletum rotundifoliae and Ammanietum pygmeae. Due to species composition and habitat preferences all phytocoenoses were included into the Oryzetea sativae class and the Ludwigion hyssopifolio- octovalvis alliance. As in other rice field phytocoenoses, the main discrimination factors for the plots are depth of water, soil trophy and species richness. The altitudinal distribution also has a significant influence and separates the Rotaletum rotundifoliae and Elatinetum triandro-ambiguae associations. The study shows that anthropogenic rice fields can harbour relatively rich rush and water vegetation. More than 80 species were noted in the vegetation plots. Several of them are considered to be extremely rare and have been recorded on the world Red List.
The article presents the classification software according to the international product description standard ETIM. The software has been designed for Polish manufacturers or wholesalers who want to implement this standard in their companies. Classification is done in Polish language, on the basis of information contained in the company’s product files. Application features several mechanisms to facilitate the creation of product description, like suggestion of the appropriate class or automatic recognition of values of the required parameters. With this application, the tedious and time consuming job of classification becomes easier and can be done much quicker.
The paper discusses the floristic structure, distribution and habitat requirements of a shrubby community of Salicetum schugnanicae ass. nova. The potential range of the association is described within the Pamir Alai Mts in Middle Asia. The biotope of this community comprises alpine, humid tall-herbs with shrubby physiognomy on relatively flat slopes of mountain valleys. Th plots of the association were found at elevations between 2,500 and 3,500 m above sea level. Phytocoenoses of the Salicetum schugnanicae are characterised by an apparent domination of a characteristic species Salix schugnanicae in shrub layer. The density of the willow thicket is moderate, from 35 to 90%. The herb layer of the community is moderately rich in species and consists mainly of taxa typical for Mulgedio-Aconitetea class (Angelica komarovii, Codonopsis clematoides, Geranium collinum, G. regelii, Heracleum lehmannianum and Polygonum coriarium) and Nardion alliance (e.g. Blysmus compressus, Carex orbicularis subsp. hissaro-darvasica, Dactylorhiza umbrosa, Heleocharis meridionalis, Pedicularis peduncularis, Primula iljinii, Swertia juzepczukii). Also the moss layer is abundant as it is typically for peaty or boggy habitats similar to alpine mires. The most frequent bryophytes noted in the plots are: Brachythecium mildeanum, Calliergonella cuspidata or Cratoneuron commutatum. The described willow association is one of the rarest and most rapidly disappearing plant communit in Tajikistan. This makes the association of highest conservation priority and special management attention.
The paper presents descriptions of two new taxa, Stipa ×brevicallosa var. hissarensis and Stipa orientalis var. ladakhorum. Both of them differ from the nominal varieties in having densely pubescent (not glabrous or scabrous) leaves of vegetative shoots. First of the above mentioned taxa occurs in Tajikistan (Pamir Alai Mts) whereas the second in India (Western Himalayas). Images of type specimens of both taxa are provided.
The paper presents the results of phytosociological researches on rocky slope vegetation in Tajikistan with the aim to establish a comprehensive syntaxonomical classification system. Field studies were conducted in 2010-2014 in Pamir Alai ranges and Pamirian plateau. Nearly 500 relevés documenting rock and scree vegetation were made according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Numerical analyses of selected 58 relevés representing dwarf shrub vegetation on rock ledges made it possible to distinguish: Ephedro glaucae- Spiraeion baldschuanicae and Ephedrion regeliano-fedtschenkoi alliances, as well as Spiraeetum baldschuanicae, Rhamnetum coriaceae, Pentaphylloidetum parvifoliae and Pentaphylloidetum dryadanthoidis associations, community of Ephedra glauca and community of Rhamnus minuta. The classification of vegetation of dwarf shrubs on rock walls occurring in the Pamir Alai Mts is proposed. Because of the species composition, physiognomy and microhabitat conditions, the plant communities were included into Artemisio santolinifoliae- Berberidetea sibiricae class Ermakov et al. 2006. The main factors determining the species composition of the classified associations seem to be the elevation above sea level.The newly described syntaxa are largely defined by species restricted to very narrow ranges in Middle Asia.
Results of supravital and post-mortem observation of embolic-thrombotic complications in dogs, in the course of endotoxaemia induced by pyometra and phlegmonous pneumonia due to infection with Pseudomons aeruginosa, or endomyocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection were described. Multiorgan embolic-thrombotic complications were diagnosed in all presented cases. Most probably, the complications developed due to thrombocytopoenia secondary to platelet activation and exacerbation of endotoxin-induced DIC syndrome. In all the dogs, a disturbed cardiac rhythm was diagnosed supravitally. The rhythm disturbances might reflect myocardial injury due to presence of bacterial endotoxins in blood. The myocardial injury was confirmed by histopathological examination.
The possibility to obtain a desired color of the product and to ensure its repeatability in the production process is highly desired in many industries such as printing, automobile, dyeing, textile, cosmetics or plastics industry. So far, most companies have traditionally used the "manual" method, relying on intuition and experience of a colorist. However, the manual preparation of multiple samples and their correction can be very time consuming and expensive. The computer technology has allowed the development of software to support the process of matching colors. Nowadays, formulation of colors is done with appropriate equipment (colorimeters, spectrophotometers, computers) and dedicated software. Computer-aided formulation is much faster and cheaper than manual formulation, because fewer corrective iterations have to be carried out, to achieve the desired result. Moreover, the colors are analyzed with regard to the metamerism, and the best recipe can be chosen, according to the specific criteria (price, quantity, availability). Optimaization problem of color formulation can be solved in many diferent ways. Authors decided to apply genetic algorithms in this domain.