In the next article on synthesis of regulations, the authors presented the general legal requirements for rotorcraft, which is limited to US regulations, because the vast majority of world regulations are based on them. The Institute of Aviation in Warsaw has developed requirements concerning the construction and operation of rotorcraft in Poland. These requirements constitute an important contribution to the regulations of the Civil Aviation Authority which are in force in the air space of the Republic of Poland. This paper presents the legal situation of rotorcraft and compares the requirements for helicopters and gyroplane. The conclusions highlighted the differences that arise from regulations between helicopters and rotorcraft. The authors have suggested the necessity to separate provisions for the group of windmills, which is implemented in the regulations of the Civil Aviation Authority. The presented work is the second of a planned series of publications in which authors intend to bring some of the issues to the reader about the design aspects of aircraft in selected global aviation regulations.
Dominika Maciejewska, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Maja Czerwińska-Rogowska, Marcin Banaszczak, Karina Ryterska, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jakub Piotrwski, Joanna Hołowko, Arleta Drozd, Paweł Wysokińki, Krzysztof Ficek, Krzysztof Wilk, Anna Lubkowska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jerzy Bertrand and Ewa Stachowska
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of 6 week Mediterranean diet or 30% calorie restriction on the fatty acid profile and eicosanoids (hydroxyoctadecadienoi acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids) concentration. Furthermore, basic biochemical variables such as insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and a lipid profile were estimated. The study enrolled 94 Caucasian former athletes aged 20-42, with body height of 179 ± 16.00 cm and body mass of 89.26 ± 13.25 kg who had not been active for at least 5 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups: CR group – the 30% calorie restriction (n = 32), MD group - the Mediterranean diet (n = 34), and C group - a control group (n = 28). The pattern of nutrition was analysed before and after the experiment using the 72 h food diaries. In order to evaluate the effect of diet intervention, the following variables were measured: anthropometrics, basic biochemical variables (insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profile), fatty acids and their blood derivatives profiles. The CR group showed significantly lower levels of several biochemical variables, i.e., BMI, total cholesterol LDL, TG, total lipids, insulin and HOMA – IR (p < 0.05). Subjects consuming the MD diet significantly decreased their BMI and reduced the level of total lipids (p < 0.05). We did not find any significant changes in the C group. The analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the CR group had a significantly decreased EPA level (p < 0.05). The MD group showed a significantly increased level of the DHA (p < 0.05) and improvement in the omega - 3 index (p < 0.05). Subjects following the MD also showed significantly lower concentrations of 15 - hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We did not observe any significant differences between the CR and C groups. Within short time, calorie restriction helps to improve lipid variables and insulin resistance. The MD diet seems to be more advantageous in the decrease of inflammation, but does not improve basic biochemical variables. We can conclude that calorie restriction can be a good choice for former athletes, although EPA and DHA supplementation is needed.