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Open access

Ryszard Kosson and Marcin Horbowicz

Some Quality Characteristics Including Isothiocyanates Content of Horseradish Cream as Affected by Storage Period

During two-year experiments the effects of long-term storage at three temperature levels (2°C, 8°C and 18°C) on content of some nutritive components, including pungent compounds - isothiocyanates (ITC), in processed horseradish (cream) were studied. The significant changes of content of reducing sugars, total isothiocyanates and color indexes in horseradish cream after its storage were noted. The higher temperature of storage the higher content of reducing sugar in horseradish cream was observed. Content of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and especially phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in fresh horseradish cream was lower in comparison to non-processed horseradish roots. Contents of both isothiocyanates decreased significantly during storage period. The highest decline of isothiocyanates level was observed during first four months of storage. The highest temperature of storage studied (18°C) caused faster decline of both isothiocyanates concentration in horseradish cream. To maintain the human health-promoting compounds in processed horseradish, as well as to keep sensory attributes (color), it is suggested to store horseradish cream in cold condition.

Open access

Ryszard Kosson and Marcin Horbowicz

Effect of Long Term Storage on Some Nutritive Components and Isothiocyanates Content in Roots of Two Horseradish Types

During two-years experiments the effect of long-term storage in cold room (0-1°C) on content of some nutritive constituents including isothiocyanates (ITC) in horseradish roots cultivated in Poland and Hungary was studied. Freshly harvested roots of Polish horseradish contained higher content of analyzed allyl- and phenylethyl-isothiocyantes (AITC and PEITC) in comparison to horseradish of Hungarian origin. Level of both ITCs affect the hot taste of horseradish products, so it seems that roots of Polish horseradish are more suitable for such production. During long-term storage in cold room variation of content of both isothicyanates were observed, but mean level of the pungent compounds: AITC and PEITC, remained relatively high, what is important for processing of the vegetable, and quality of products. During long term storage of both horseradish roots types in cold room the significant decline of ascorbic acid content was noted, but after 10 months storage period its level was still high.

Open access

Lesław Lahuta, Joanna Goszczyńska and Marcin Horbowicz

Seed α-D-Galactosides of Selected Vicia Species and Enzymes Involved in Their Biosynthesis

We compared the soluble carbohydrate composition of seeds of ten wild and cultivated species of the genus Vicia. In some Vicia species (V. angustifolia, V. grandiflora, V. sativa, V. sepium) they contained only raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and in others also D-pinitol and its α-D-galactosides. In terms of galactosyl pinitol composition they were divided into three groups: those accumulating small amounts of mono-, di-, tri-galactosyl pinitol A (GPA, ciceritol and TGPA, respectively) and unknown compound (V. sylvatica and V. hirsuta); those accumulating more ciceritol than TGPA (V. tetrasperma and V. villosa); and those accumulating more TGPA than ciceritol (V. cracca and V. tenuifolia). The differences in the activity of galactosyltransferases engaged in RFOs and galactosyl pinitol synthesis confirmed this classification. Seeds of V. angustifolia, naturally accumulating only RFOs, showed an ability to accumulate exogenously applied D-pinitol or D-chiro-inositol and to form the respective α-D-galactosyl cyclitols. Levels of synthesized galactosides depended on the type and concentration of cyclitol in the feeding solution, and seed maturation stage. However, even a high level of D-pinitol or D-chiro-inositol in the feeding solution caused accumulation of only small amounts of mono- and di-galactosyl pinitols, or tri-galactosyl D-chiro-inositol in seeds of V. angustifolia. Enhanced synthesis of galactosyl cyclitols, mainly mono- and di-galactosides of D-chiro-inositol (fagopyritols), clearly reduced production of verbascose. We suggest that exogenously applied free cyclitols inhibit biosynthesis of tri- and di-galactosides and/or cause substrate competition in enzymes of Vicia species.

Open access

Marian Saniewski, Marcin Horbowicz and Sirichai Kanlayanarat

Abstract

Chemical compounds containing the tropone structure (2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), in their molecule, called troponoids, characterized by a seven-membered ring, are distributed in some plants, bacteria and fungi, although they are relatively rare. ß-Thujaplicin (2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), also known as hinokitiol, is a natural compound found in several plants of the Cupressaceae family. Besides hinokitiol, related compounds were identified in Cupressaceae trees. It has been demonstrated that hinokitiol and its derivatives have various biological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-ischemic, iron chelating and the inhibitory activity against polyphenol oxidase activity. Activity similar to ß-thujaplicin has tropolone and its derivatives, which are not present nature. Due to the high scientific and practical interest, synthetic ß-thujaplicin and other troponoids have been produced for many years. In this review, the major biological effects of troponoids, mostly ß-thujaplicin and tropolone, on tyrosinase and polyphenol oxidase activity, ethylene production, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities, and biotransformation of ß-thujaplicin by cultured plant cells are presented. Accumulation of ß-thujaplicin and related troponoids has been shown in cell cultures of Cupressus lusitanica and other species of Cupressaceae. The biosynthetic pathway of the troponoids in plants, bacteria and fungi has been also briefly described.

Open access

Urszula Smolińska, Beata Kowalska, Waldemar Kowalczyk and Marcin Horbowicz

Effect of Rape and Mustard Seed Meals on Verticillium wilt of Pepper

The effect of plant material from Brassicaceae plants - the mustard seed meal and rapeseed meal, added to soil or peat substrate, on Verticillium wilt of pepper was evaluated in laboratory and greenhouse conditions. It was stated that the addition of these materials decreased infestation of pepper vascular vessels caused by Verticillium dahliae. The decomposition of rapeseed meal and mustard seed meal increased concentration of ammonia, the compound toxic to many pathogens. The increase of total bacteria, actinomycetes, spore forming bacteria were also observed. The materials from Brassicaceae plants positive influenced on plant development and chlorophyll content in pepper leaves.

Open access

Marcin Horbowicz, Ryszard Kosson, Anna Grzesiuk and Henryk Dębski

Anthocyanins of Fruits and Vegetables - Their Occurrence, Analysis and Role in Human Nutrition

Anthocyanins are one of the largest and most important group of water-soluble pigments in most species in the plant kingdom. They are accumulated in cell vacuoles and are largely responsible for diverse pigmentation from orange to red, purple and blue in flowers, fruits, such as: blackberry, red and black raspberries, blueberries, bilberries, cherries, currants, blood orange, elderberries, grapes, and vegetables such as: red onion, radish, red cabbage, red lettuce, egg-plant, red-skinned potato and purple sweet potato. Anthocyanins in fruits and vegetables are present in glycosylated forms. The qualitative and quantitative determination of anthocyanins in plant can be performed by classical (spectro-photometric) or contemporary methods - HPLC coupled with a various types of mass spectrometers or NMR apparatus. Anthocyanins are widely ingested by humans, mainly due to consumption of fruits, vegetables and red wines. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of anthocyanins for individuals has been estimated from several milligrams to hundreds of milligrams per person. Anthocyanins as well as other flavonoids occuring in fruits, and vegetables are protective against a variety of diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. Also the visual acuity can be markedly improved through administration of anthocyanin pigments to animals and humans.

Open access

Justyna Góraj-Koniarska, Marian Saniewski, Ryszard Kosson, Wiesław Wiczkowski and Marcin Horbowicz

Abstract

In tomato fruits, chlorophyll, lycopene and ß-carotene are mostly responsible for the color. During ripening of tomato fruits, the color of the pericarp changes from green to red as chlorophyll is degraded and carotenoids accumulate. These changes are associated with an increase in respiration and ethylene production. Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants can be disturbed by herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-trifluoromethyl(phenyl)]- 4(1H)-pyridinone), which inhibits the activity of phytoene desaturase, an enzyme responsible for conversion of phytoene to phytofluene. Fluridone is also used as an inhibitor of biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones, and it reduces chlorophyll production in plants. In our research we studied the effect of fluridone on some physiological parameters, such as color, firmness, ethylene production, lycopene and chlorophyll content during ripening of the tomato fruit. Tomato plants cv. Altadena (Syngenta) were cultivated in a greenhouse in controlled temperature and both immature and mature fruits were used for the experiments, performed between August and November 2016. Fluridone at concentrations of 0.1% and 1.0% in lanolin paste was applied as a 2-3 mm stripe from the top to the base of tomato fruits, and as a control a stripe of lanolin was applied in the same way on the opposite side of the fruits. Fluridone at a concentration of 1.0% greatly inhibited lycopene accumulation in the pericarp of tomato fruits from the treated side. The measurements of fruit firmness have shown no significant differences between firmness of the part of the tomato fruits treated with fluridone, and the non-treated ones. Tomato fruits treated with fluridone produced amounts of ethylene similar to those found in control tissues on the opposite side of the same fruit. Fluridone delayed chlorophyll degradation in tomato fruits. The metabolic significance of these findings is discussed with the role of carotenogenesis inhibition in tomato fruit ripening.

Open access

Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Marian Saniewski, Justyna Góraj, Marcin Horbowicz, Kensuke Miyamoto and Junichi Ueda

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of sucrose on auxin-induced growth of stem excised from growing tulips and excised directly from cooled and not cooled bulbs, and on the growth of excised IV internode from growing plants in the presence of auxin. In all cases flower bud was replaced by IAA (indole-3- acetic acid, 0.1%, w/w in lanolin) and basal part of excised segments of stem was kept in distilled water or in solution of various sugars at different concentrations. IAA-induced growth of excised stems isolated from growing tulips was inhibited by sucrose at concentrations of 5.0% and 10.0%, but sucrose at 1.25% and 2.5% did not. Sucrose at all concentrations used evidently delayed senescence and increased chlorophyll contents in excised stems in the presence of IAA. Sucrose induced stiffing in isolated stems in the presence of IAA, and much less infective by pathogen in comparison to stem treated with IAA only. Mannitol and sorbitol at concentrations of 5.0% and 10.0% substantially inhibited IAA-induced growth of stem segments. Stem segments excised from cooled and not cooled tulip bulbs were more sensitive than those isolated from growing shoots due to application of sucrose and glucose; more inhibitory effect was observed. Sucrose at concentrations of 5.0% and 10.0% only slightly inhibited growth of IV internode treated with IAA and all concentrations of sucrose (1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%) substantially increased chlorophyll content. The possible mode of actions of sucrose interacting with auxin to regulate stem growth is also discussed although sugar response is complicated by the fact that plants have multiple sugar-response pathways.

Open access

Henryk Dębski, Wiesław Wiczkowski, Dorota Szawara-Nowak, Natalia Bączek, Małgorzata Piechota and Marcin Horbowicz

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone forms in photochemical reactions or by refuse burning and combustion of exhaust gases from engines, and during some industrial processes. The mean ambient ozone concentration doubled during the last century, and in many urban areas has reached the phytotoxic level. In the present study, there was determined the effect of ozone fumigation on levels of individual flavonoids, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols in the cotyledons of four common buckwheat cultivars (Hruszowska, Panda, Kora and Red Corolla). Six-day-old buckwheat seedlings were grown in controlled conditions and treated with an elevated dose of ozone (391 μg · m−3) during 5 days for 1 h each day. After the experiment, the cotyledons of the seedlings were analysed for individual flavonoids, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols. Shoot elongation was also measured. Individual types of flavonoids in buckwheat cotyledons were found to respond to an elevated ozone dose in various ways. The response was also dependent on the cultivar evaluated. In the cotyledons of ozonized buckwheat seedlings, contents of C-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin decreased or did not change depending on the cultivar examined. In the case of flavonols, the contents of quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside and rutin (quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside) were markedly reduced in most cultivars. O3 had no effect on the level of anthocyanins and chlorophylls but it decreased carotenoids, and tended to inhibit buckwheat growth. In conclusion, a thesis can be formulated that, due to high reduction in important flavonoids, an elevated level of ambient ozone decreases the nutritional value of common buckwheat seedlings.

Open access

Ewa Ciska, Marcin Horbowicz, Maria Rogowska, Ryszard Kosson, Natalia Drabińska and Joanna Honke

Abstract

In comparison with other cruciferous vegetables, horseradish has rarely been the object of scientific research, and the knowledge about the composition, content and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS) in different organs of horseradish plants is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the GLS content in leaves and roots of four horseradish landraces during the growing season.

The presence of 13 GLS was determined in the examined horseradish tissues, and glucoraphanin, glucoraphenin and napoleiferin were noted for the first time in the species. During the growing season, the content of individual GLS changed significantly. The rate and direction of these changes varied across the examined landraces and plant organs. In the leaves, between May and June, the content of sinigrin, the main GLS in all horseradish landraces, decreased in Bavarian (40%) and Hungarian (11%) horseradish, increased (22%) in Creamy horseradish, whereas in Danish horseradish, the difference was not significant. Despite the changes observed in the first two months, the highest content of sinigrin was noted in July in all horseradish landraces. During the growing season (August-October), the content of sinigrin fluctuated in the roots of Creamy and Danish landraces, reaching the highest level in October and September, respectively, whereas in the roots of Hungarian and Bavarian landraces, sinigrin concentrations continued to increase and peaked in October. Changes in the content of other, minor GLS during the growing season often differed from those noted in sinigrin levels.