The article presents modern car industry and tourism issues. It is a case study of a multifunctional centre - the Audi Forum Ingolstadt, situated next to a large Audi factory in Ingolstadt, Germany. It was created in order to promote the Audi brand and provide service for the customers picking up their cars in Ingolstadt. It also performs tourist functions as it focuses on providing service for the people who arrive to visit the car factory, the Audi museum mobile and the region. The centre offers specific tourist products based on particular experiences, which may be included in industrial tourism. The facilities in the Audi Forum Ingolstadt are tourist assets in themselves; they may also be seen as tourist infrastructure. It is also a place where numerous events are held, attracting tourists. The Audi Forum Ingolstadt is an example of a multifunctional centre with distinctive tourist functions, situated on the premises of a large modern car factory.
Urban environments in post-socialist cities have generated new challenges for urban planners and decision makers. As one example, the transport infrastructure of Bratislava has not been adjusted with respect to increasing mobility and the transit problems of its intra-urban environment. An upgrading of the conventional railway networks within the city is one of the major opportunities which might considerably improve public transit capacities available for both intra-urban and regional (suburban) transport flows of passengers. Relevant studies on the population potential of residents supporting such upgrades are still lacking. In addition, a detailed database on population distributions within the intra-urban environments of Slovak cities is not yet available. Therefore, this paper attempts to introduce one of the possible methodological approaches leading to an estimation of population potential as an elementary precondition of intra-urban railway traffic effectiveness, in a society where a detailed database on population distribution is not available.
Despite of increasing volumes of individual passenger transport and growing dependence of the post-socialist societies on the passenger car, public transport is still inevitable for certain communities. Its social and environmental aspects are obvious reasons why public transport remains within the scope of state and regional policies as a mixture of public and commercial services. Long-distance and international overground public transport represents a higher standard of travelling of considerably commercial nature. An important feature of this segment of the public transport is its capability to compete with individual transportation for long-distance journeys. The commercial character of the long-distance public transport should motivate operators to run territorially effective links covering adequately populated communites and regions with high demand for this segment of public-transport services. This study deals with several territorial aspects of the network of long-distance and international bus and train links of public transport in the Slovak Republic. The network of communities having direct access to the high-standard modes of public transport has been identified, revealing some of their spatial patterns and focusing on categorization of urban settlements by selected parameters of high-standard public transport services. The relationship with the population size of the urban settlements is assessed in the study, too.
Dynamic economic expansion of metropolitan regions in post-communist central Europe induces dynamic traffic growth, which calls for new transport network solutions and improvements to existing transport infrastructure within the regions. This is also the case of Bratislava as the capital city of post-communist Slovakia, which has recently been facing new economic and urban development challenges. A booming labour market, intensive suburbanisation processes, traffic expansion and urban (re-)development bring new conflicts and demand for grand-scale transport projects. An ongoing upgrade of the motorway system in the region of Bratislava will result in the construction of a substantial part of an orbital motorway surrounding the southern and eastern parts of the city. The potential effects of the motorway network-upgrade projects on the city urbanism are probably immense. This paper attempts to evaluate the possible changes in accessibility within the road network after completion of motorway upgrading project D4/R7 in the metropolitan area of Bratislava. The interaction potential of both population and jobs was applied here to assess possible impacts of road network enhancement on accessibility of places of residence and of work.
Over the last twenty years or so, researchers’ attention to the issue of food deserts has increased in the geographical literature. Accessibility to large-scale retail units is one of the essential and frequently-used indicators leading to the identification and mapping of food deserts. Numerous accessibility measures of various types are available for this purpose. Euclidean distance and street network distance rank among the most frequently-used approaches, although they may lead to slightly different results. The aim of this paper is to compare various approaches to the accessibility to food stores and to assess the differences in the results gained by these methods. Accessibility was measured for residential block centroids, with applications of various accessibility measures in a GIS environment. The results suggest a strong correspondence between Euclidean distance and a little more accurate street network distance approach, applied in the case of the urban environment of Bratislava-Petržalka, Slovakia.
The long-distance public transport services among the eight regional centres of Slovakia, representing the key urban locations with concentrations of most of the country’s services, including business, educational and financial institutions, as well as political power, are examined in this article. It is assumed that the mutual transport interconnections within this group of cities will be a focus for public transport operators in their attempt to gain the largest possible share of potential customers, passengers who would otherwise be users of individual transport means. Hence, one of main aims of this study is to compare public and individual transport modes, and the possibilities offered by them in the mutual interconnections of major regional centres in the country
The retailing sector seems to be rather sensitive to social and economic developments in a society. In contrast to global retail network trends, specific processes may be observed in some lagging regions in post-communist countries. In the article attention is paid to spatial changes in food and non-food retailing locations in the region of Gemer, one of the least developed regions of post-communist Slovakia. The retailing network transformation between 1996 and 2012 was measured by applying retail capacity calculations for surplus or deficit, related to the population size of municipalities within the region. In the article, we examine food and non-food retail locations in the Gemer region with a special focus on spatial changes (urban vs rural) as well as temporal and trends based on retail capacity growth indices. In conclusion, the findings suggest that rural food and non-food retailing businesses have gone through considerable change and that it is not in harmony with the globalisation processes visible in the urban environment. Specifically, retail capacities (both food and nonfood) in the Gemer region are witnessing a period of growth.