Laser Beam machining (LBM) nowadays finds a wide acceptance for cutting various materials and cutting of polymer sheets is no exception. Greater reliability of process coupled with superior quality of finished product makes LBM widely used for cutting polymeric materials. Earlier researchers investigated the carbon dioxide laser cutting to a few thermoplastic polymers in thickness varying from 2mm to 10mm. Here, an approach is being made for grading the suitability of polymeric materials and to answer the problem of selection for LBM cutting as per their weightages obtained by using multi-decision making (MCDM) approach. An attempt has also been made to validate the result thus obtained with the experimental results obtained by previous researchers. The analysis encompasses the use of non-parametric linear-programming method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) for process efficiency assessment combined with technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) for selection of polymer sheets, which is based on the closeness values. The results of this uniquely blended analysis reflect that for 3mm thick polymer sheet is polypropelene (PP) to be highly preferable over polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC). While it turns out to be that polycarbonate (PC) to be highly preferable to other two polymers for 5mm thick polymer sheets. Hence the present research analysis fits very good for the polymer sheets of 3mm thickness while it deviates a little bit for the 5mm sheets.
A nanocomposite of 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 has been synthesized using a sol-gel route. Structural and optical properties of the nanocomposite have been discussed in detail. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy confirm the phase purity and the particle size of the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposite (13 to 15 nm). The scanning electron microscopy also confirms the porosity in the sample, useful in sensing applications. The FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of physical interaction between SnO2 and Al2O3 due to the slight shifting and broadening of characteristic bands. The UV-Vis analysis confirms the semiconducting nature because of direct transition of electrons into the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposites.
Now-a-days Massive MIMO (mMIMO) become an attractive technology due to its spectral and energy efficiency by the means of simple signal processing. However, in overloaded scenario, wherein the number of users equipments (UEs) are larger than number of antennas, the spectral effciency (SE) suffers and hence error rate performance, it has been shown recently that use of code domain NOMA in mMIMO can improve the SE performance. Further, interleave division multiple access (IDMA) has been drawn much attention as a suitable code domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for future communication standards. This paper proposes the work in two folds, first a massive multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) and IDMA communication system is jointly proposed in which antennas on the base station serves users simultaneously in the same frequency band. Both and are large in numbers. Secondly, the minimum mean square error (MMSE) based beamformer is suggested to combat the propagation loss and effect of multiple access interference (MAI), for massive MIMO-IDMA system under downlink communication constraints. With the help of simulation results, the performance of the proposed system with MMSE beamforming have been investigated in terms of BER vs SNR curve plot.