Bread, which is a major breakfast food, has been documented to be susceptible to contamination by toxic fungi metabolites (mycotoxins) in various parts of the world. Total aflatoxins (AfT) and fumonisins (FB) are two important mycotoxins known for their ability to cause health damage to animals and humans when ingested through food over a long time. This study set out to determine the presence and level of these mycotoxins in bread produced and/or consumed within Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. After extraction, ELISA was used to quantify the toxins in 30 samples of bread. The outcome showed 50% (15/30) contamination of bread samples by AfT and 93.3% (28/30) contamination by FB within the ranges 0.1-5.5 μg/kg and 10-220 μg/kg respectively. Three (3) of the bread samples were contaminated by AfT beyond the safe limit, while all the samples contaminated with FB were contaminated within the safe limit. The mutual occurrence of both toxins was recorded at 46.7%. EDI for AfT and FB were estimated to be 0.0048 μg/kg bw/day and 0.3379 μg/kg bw/day respectively while risk characterisation gave an estimated TDI% of 16.896% for FB. The results suggest that chronic toxic effects rather than acute toxicity could occur from long-term exposure to AfT and FB from bread. It is therefore advised that the raw materials used in bread manufacturing should be monitored and regulated for mycotoxins.
Fungi have been associated with contamination and spoilage of food. These organisms are known to thrive in different weather and environmental conditions. Maize kernel obtained from field, store and market from 25 Local Government Areas of Niger State within the month of August to September were analyzed for fungi occurrence using standard methods. Ten different fungus; Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. parasiticus, Mucor spp, Fusarium spp, Penicillium spp, Yeast and Rhizopus spp, were identified and isolated from the maize kernel. From the agro-ecological zones of the state, the most predominant fungi were Aspergillus species (241/345), Rhizopus spp (41/345) and Mucor spp (37/345) while Penicilium spp and yeast were the least identified. Within the zones, Aspergillus species have the highest occurrence; wet (65/95), driest (63/95), wettest (56/95) and dry zone (54/95) zones. The highest occurrence of fungi was found in the market sample (129) followed by store (112) and field (104). High percentage occurrence of 11.6% was recorded in Suleja, Wushishi, and Borgu Local Government Area, followed by 10.6, 10.1, 8.7, 9.7, 9.2, 8.7 and 8.2% in Bosso, Tafa, Madalla, Minna, Paiko, Bida and Sabon wuse respectively. Mold species known to be mycotoxin producers were reported in this work. This poses as a risk factor to food safety.