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Open access

Hubert Makaruk and Tomasz Sacewicz

Effects of Plyometric Training on Maximal Power Output and Jumping Ability

Purpose. The study aims to determine the effect of plyometric exercises performed with minimum ground contact time on the maximal power output of the legs and jumping ability. Basic procedures. This study sample comprised 44 non-training students of physical education. Following randomization, the experimental group performed plyometric exercises for six weeks, whereas the control group participated only in lectures. The subjects performed counter movement jumps (CMJ), depth jumps (DJ) and a five-hop test. Main findings. After the completion of plyometric training, an increase in the relative maximal power output (p ≤ 0.001) in CMJ and DJ was observed, whereas the center of mass elevation and the five-hop test distance length did not change significantly (p>0.05). Additionally, the rebound time in DJ was significantly shorter and the range of counter movement in the knee decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusions. Depending on the aim of programme, plyometric training should determine the ways of performing exercises. Methodological guidelines in plyometric training aimed at increasing the maximal power output may be different from indications concerning jumping ability.

Open access

Hubert Makaruk

Abstract

Introduction. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of traditional jumps and rope jumps during warm-up on power and jumping ability in trained men. Material and methods. A group of 12 national-level track and field athletes participated in the study. Peak power and jumping ability were assessed by having participants perform five alternate leg bounds, a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a drop jump (DJ). Three different warm-up protocols were used in random order, with 3-day intervals between them. The first involved traditional jumps, the second rope jumps and the control consisted of general warm-up only (jogging and stretching). Results. The rope-jump warm-up protocol significantly improved jumping distance (p<0.05) as compared to the traditional protocol. There were no significant differences in peak power or jump height among experimental groups in the CMJ and DJ. The study also revealed that traditional and ropejump protocols significantly (p<0.001) increased peak power and jump height for the CMJ and DJ, and jump distance for the five alternate leg bounds compared to the control condition. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a warm-up including rope jumps may be more effective for horizontal jumping tasks than a protocol with traditional jumps, and that traditional and rope-jump warm-up protocols provide similar levels of enhancement for vertical jumping tasks.

Open access

Hubert Makaruk, Andrzej Mastalerz, Marcin Starzak and Mariusz Buszta

Abstract

Introduction. This study examined the changes in the kinematic parameters of long jump-specific technical exercise performed in different training conditions.

Material and methods. The study involved a group of young female athletes who volunteered to participate in the research. The key variables for long jump performance were measured using the Xsens MVN system. A three-way ANOVA (general linear model with repeated measures; factors: surface × hurdle × number of jumps) was used to determine if significant differences existed between the testing conditions.

Results. The main finding of this study was that the tartan surface resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) greater velocities of the centre of mass of the body (CM) or parts of the athlete’s body than the grass surface. The second important finding was that the hurdles condition provided significantly (p < 0.05) greater velocity of the CM when landing and shorter contact time compared to the condition without hurdles.

Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that technical exercise should be performed on harder surfaces such as a tartan track rather than softer ones (e.g. grass) due to more beneficial movement characteristics and greater potential for the automaticity of movement during specific training tasks.

Open access

Makaruk Hubert, Marcin Starzak and Jerzy Sadowski

Abstract

Purpose. While take-off accuracy and approach run velocity are known determinants of long and triple jump performance, the interaction of these factors with step length adjustment (SLA) is not as clear. Methods. The study involved 39 male and 31 female national-level long and triple jumpers. The Optojump Next device was used to analyse jump attempts. Three groups were identified according to maximum variability of footfall placement (HVF - high, MVF - medium, LVF - Low) as well as three groups regarding the onset of step length adjustment (ESLA - early, MSLA - mid, LSLA - late). Results. Take-off accuracy in the LVF and MVF groups was greater compared with the HVF group among females. Among males, the LVF group made significantly (p < 0.05) fewer foul attempts than the HVF group. The ESLA group achieved significantly (p < 0.05) higher velocity during the last five steps of the approach run than the LSLA group in men. Conclusions. Coaches should implement exercises targeting SLA in long and triple jump training exercises to improve performance.

Open access

Hubert Makaruk, Marak Porter, Marcin Starzak and Edward Szymczak

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in selected kinematics in the long jump, triple jump, and pole vault to highlight the unique movement pattern characteristics in the approach runs utilised in these events. Material and methods. Data were collected during 1 international and 2 national competitions from 36 male athletes (12 in each event) using an Optojump Next system. Results. This study showed the long jumpers achieved the highest mean step velocity, with the pole vaulters showing the lowest velocity. The velocity of the last step before the take-off was greater (p < 0.05) than the velocity of the penultimate step in all groups of athletes. The length of the last step before the take-off was greater (p < 0.01) than the length of the penultimate step in long jump and pole vault athletes compared to the triple jumpers. The long jumpers demonstrated less contact time (p < 0.01) than the pole vaulters. The contact time of the take-off leg was shorter (p < 0.01) compared to that of the non-take-off leg in pole vaulters. The pole vaulters demonstrated less flight time (p < 0.05) compared to the triple jumpers. Lastly, the flight time during the last step before the take-off was shorter (p < 0.01) than the flight time during the penultimate step in all groups. Conclusions. These findings revealed that each of the track and field jumping events required a distinctive approach run. Therefore, training workouts need to be designed specifically to train the unique gait pattern of the long jump, triple jump, and pole vault.

Open access

Hubert Makaruk, Tomasz Sacewicz, Adam Czaplicki and Jerzy Sadowski

Effect of Additional Load on Power Output during Drop Jump Training

Plyometrics can be an effective way of improving power performance in many sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of additional loading on power during drop jump training. Forty-two untrained physical education students with plyometric training background participated in a six-week training 3 times a week. Subjects were randomized to one of three training groups: without (FREE) and with a weight vest (VEST; 5% body weight), and a control group (CON). Pretraining and post-training measures of concentric peak power (PP), force (Fpp) and velocity (υPP) at peak power and, in addition, time between eccentric and concentric peak power (tPPEC) were analyzed in a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a drop jump (DJ) from a height of 0.3 m. The FREE and VEST groups considerably improved PP in CMJ (p < 0.05), but υPP significantly increased (p < 0.05) and tPPEC significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the FREE group. The enhancement of PP and υPP was only demonstrated by the FREE group in DJ. The FREE group significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and the VEST group significantly increased (p < 0.05) tPPEC in DJ. It can be concluded that using additional load during drop jump training does not produce superior gains in power output when compared to a traditional drop jump training program.

Open access

Beata Makaruk, Henryk Sozański, Hubert Makaruk and Tomasz Sacewicz

Abstract

Purpose. The main aim of the study was to examine the effects of resisted and standard sprint training on the kinematics of sprintrunning acceleration in women. Methods. Thirty-six untrained but physically active female college students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a running resisted training group (RTG, n = 12), a standard training group (STG, n = 12), and a control group (CON, n = 12). All participants in the experimental groups trained three times a week for four weeks, followed by a 1-week training break, after which they trained again for four weeks. Pre-training, post-training and detraining (three weeks after completing the training programs) measures of mean running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, knee angle at toe off and footstrike, ground contact time, and flight time were analyzed by a 20 m sprint test. Results. The RTG improved mean running velocity and increased stride length and knee angle at toe off. Simultaneously, the RTG featured decreased stride frequency and increased ground contact time. The STG demonstrated an increase in mean running velocity due to higher stride frequency and a decrease in ground contact time. All of the measured parameters did not significantly decrease after the three-week detraining period. The control group featured no changes. Conclusions. Both resisted and standard sprint training improves speed in sprint-running acceleration in women by improving different sprint kinematic parameters.

Open access

Marcin Starzak, Hubert Makaruk and Anna Starzak

Abstract

Introduction. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a training programme aimed to enhance toe-toboard consistency on footfall variability and performance in the long jump. Material and methods. The study involved 36 male physical education students. The experimental group participated in a 12-week training programme, whereas the control group was limited to taking part in the classes held at university. All participants performed 6 long jump trials during two testing sessions. The kinematic parameters were assessed using the Optojump Next device and were further analysed to determine the variability of footfall placement during the approach run. Results. The analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in footfall variability in the experimental group between the pre-test and post-test. After the completion of the training programme, the participants significantly (p < 0.05) improved their take-off accuracy. Additionally, they significantly (p < 0.05) increased their velocity in the last five steps before take-off and the effective distance of the jump (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that through specific training, it is possible to improve the consistency of the steps in the acceleration phase of the approach run in the long jump. Moreover, decreasing footfall variability helps achieve a more stable step pattern which may be beneficial for greater accuracy at the take-off board and makes it possible to increase step velocity at the final stage of the approach run.

Open access

Krzysztof Mazurek, Piotr Zmijewski, Hubert Makaruk, Anna Mróz, Anna Czajkowska, Katarzyna Witek, Sławomir Bodasiński and Patrycja Lipińska

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and jump training on physical performance in young male handball players. Twenty-six young male handball players were divided into two sub-groups to perform a five-week pre-season training programme supplemented with two ground-reactive protocols with an equal number of jumping exercises referred as to ground contacts: plyometric training (PLY; n = 14) and standard jump training (CON; n = 12). Before and after training, repeated sprint ability (RSA), jumping ability (JA), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and aerobic power at the anaerobic threshold (PAT) were measured. A two-factor analysis revealed significant time effects with improvements in fat mass (p = 0.012), maximal power during the incremental cycling test (p = 0.001) and PAT (p < 0.001), power decline (PDEC) and maximal power (Pmax) in the 5th repetition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The training-induced changes in absolute and relative peak power in the RSA test and absolute VO2max approached significance (p = 0.06, p = 0.053 and p = 0.06). No intervention time × exercise protocol effects were observed for any indices of JA, RSA and aerobic capacity. A five-week pre-season conditioning programme supplemented with only 15 sessions of plyometric exercise did not induce any additional benefits, compared to a matched format of standard jump training, in terms of improving jumping performance and maximal power in the RSA test. Aerobic capacity and the fatigue index in RSA were maintained under these two training conditions.