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Open access

Veronika Učakar and Maja Sočan

Cepljenje Otrok Proti Noricam: Ali Sta POTREBNA Dva Odmerka Cepiva?

Norice so blaga otroška bolezen z redkimi resnimi zapleti, ki so pogostejši pri dojenčkih, odraslih in pri osebah z oslabljeno imunostjo. Cepivo proti noricam je na voljo že dolgo. Leta 1998 je Svetovna zdravstvena organizacija državam priporočila univerzalno cepljenje z enim odmerkom. Pozneje se je izkazalo, da en odmerek cepiva ni nudil zadostne zaščite pred noricami, cepljenje z dvema odmerkoma cepiva je bilo bolj imunogeno. Zato so v nekaterih državah, v katerih že poteka univerzalno cepljenje otrok proti noricam, prešli na cepljenje z dvema odmerkoma.

Narejen je bil sistematični pregled objavljenih raziskav o učinkovitosti cepljenja, ki z dokazi podpirajo smiselnost uvedbe drugega odmerka cepiva proti noricam. Maloštevilne raziskave kažejo, da je cepljenje z dvema odmerkoma pri otrocih učinkovitejše od cepljenja z enim odmerkom. Tudi pri nas je treba otrokom priporočiti cepljenje z dvema odmerkoma, ker je možnost okužbe zaradi še vedno intenzivnega kroženja povzročitelja precejšnja.

Open access

Maja Sočan, Mateja Blaško-Markič, Vanja Erčulj and Jaroslav Lajovic

Abstract

Background. Lyme borreliosis disease results from infection by members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The most common clinical presentation of Lyme borreliosis is erythema migrans (EM). To gain knowledge of the epidemiological parameters and the risk factors of EM in Slovenia, a survey has been carried out in 2010.

Methods. A short anonymous and self-administrated questionnaire was sent to 4917 notified EM patients in 2010, aiming to collect epidemiological data and assess socio-economic determinants in patients with EM.

Results. Three thousand and five (61%) patients with EM returned completed questionnaires. One thousand and nine hundred twenty-nine (74%) patients noted the tick where the EM developed. The tick bite was most often located on the legs in adults and in the head/neck area in children. The time that elapsed before the tick has been removed increased significantly with age. The attached tick was most frequently overlooked in preschool children. Nearly 70% of patients believed that they contracted the infection with borrelia near home. Infection away from their permanent residence was more often the case in those with a higher level of education and in 15-49 age groups. Compared to the Slovenian general population over 14 years of age, those with a higher level of education, the unemployed and farmers were overrepresented among the EM patients.

Conclusions. The risk of Lyme borreliosis is widespread in Slovenia, with some areas more affected then others. Determinants of exposure to infected ticks are different, and depend on the socio-economic status and demographic characteristics.

Open access

Urška Grdadolnik and Maja Sočan

Abstract

Background

Socio-economic inequalities may have an impact on the uptake of selfpaid vaccines. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of some socio economic determinants on vaccination rates with self-paid human papilloma virus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccines.

Methods

Vaccination coverage data, available in electronic database cepljenje.net (administered by the National Institute of Public Health), were collected at administrative unit level. The socio-economic determinants (the average gross pay in euros, the unemployment rate, the educational and households structure, the population density, the number of inhabitants, the number of children aged from 0 to 4, the number of women aged from 15 to 30) were extracted from Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia web page. The strength of the correlation between socioeconomic variables and self-paid HPV and RV vaccination rates was determined.

Results

Rotavirus vaccination rates show a slight negative correlation with the number of residents per administrative unit (ρ=-0.29, p=0.04), and no correlation with other socio-economic variables. Likewise, no correlation has been found between HPV vaccination rates and the selected socio-economic variables.

Conclusion

Ecological study did not reveal any correlations between socio economic variables and vaccination rates with RV and HPV self-paid vaccines on administrative unit level.

Open access

Eva Grilc and Maja Sočan

Abstract

Background: The assessment of the incidence of acute gastrintestinal infections (AGI) derived from the notifications underestimates the real burden of AGI. The symptoms of AGI are usually not severe enough for consultation with a physician. The more exact data on the burden of AGI are gained through cross sectional population-based studies. To estimate the burden of AGI in Slovenia, a period prevalence study was conducted.

Methods: A simple random sample consisting of 5000 Slovenian inhabitants was chosen to whom a questionnaire was sent in July 2011. The participants were asked if they experienced AGI in June 2011 according to a symptombased case definition. The participants were asked to fill in the questionnaire on a paper or via a web page created for study purposes.

Results: Out of 5000 participants, 1500 filled out the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 33%. The number of women responding out-numbered men - there were 58% female and 42% male responders. 66 (4.4%) of the responders claimed to have had AGI in June 2011. The incidence rate of acute AGI was therefore 4400 per 100,000 inhabitants. Comparatively, the incidence rate of notified cases in the same month was 78.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The difference between the incidence of AGI, based on notified cases and incidence, calculated in the first Slovenian cross sectional study, showed that one out of 56 cases of AGI in the community has been notified.

Conclusion: the incidence of AGI among the Slovenian population, based on data from our cross sectional study, is as expected higher than the incidence calculated from notification data from the same period.

Open access

Eva Grilc, Ivanka Gale, Aleš Veršič, Tina Žagar and Maja Sočan

Abstract

Introduction. Even brief episodes of fecal contamination of drinking water can lead directly to illness in the consumers. In water-borne outbreaks, the connection between poor microbial water quality and disease can be quickly identified. The impact of non-compliant drinking water samples due to E. coli taken for regular monitoring on the incidence of notified acute gastrointestinal infections has not yet been studied.

Methods. The objective of this study was to analyse the geographical distribution of notified acute gastrointestinal infections (AGI) in Slovenia in 2010, with hotspot identification. The second aim of the study was to correlate the fecal contamination of water supply system on the settlement level with the distribution of notified AGI cases. Spatial analysis using geo-information technology and other methods were used.

Results. Hot spots with the highest proportion of notified AGI cases were mainly identified in areas with small supply zones. The risk for getting AGI was drinking water contaminated with E. coli from supply zones with 50-1000 users: RR was 1.25 and significantly greater than one (p-value less than 0.001).

Conclusion. This study showed the correlation between the frequency of notified AGI cases and noncompliant results in drinking water monitoring.