rgbF: An Open Source Tool for n-gram Based Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation Output
We describe RGBF, a tool for automatic evaluation of machine translation output based on n-gram precision and recall. The tool calculates the F-score averaged on all n-grams of an arbitrary set of distinct units such as words, morphemes, POS tags, etc. The arithmetic mean is used for n-gram averaging. As input, the tool requires reference translation(s) and hypothesis, both containing the same combination of units. The default output is the document level 4-gram F-score of the desired unit combination. The scores at the sentence level can be obtained on demand, as well as precision and/or recall scores, separate unit scores and separate n-gram scores. In addition, weights can be introduced both for n-grams and for units, as well as the desired n-gram order n.
Hjerson: An Open Source Tool for Automatic Error Classification of Machine Translation Output
We describe Hjerson, a tool for automatic classification of errors in machine translation output. The tool features the detection of five word level error classes: morphological errors, reodering errors, missing words, extra words and lexical errors. As input, the tool requires original full form reference translation(s) and hypothesis along with their corresponding base forms. It is also possible to use additional information on the word level (e.g. pos tags) in order to obtain more details. The tool provides the raw count and the normalised score (error rate) for each error class at the document level and at the sentence level, as well as original reference and hypothesis words labelled with the corresponding error class in text and html formats.
This work presents an extensive comparison of language related problems for neural machine translation and phrase-based machine translation between German and English. The explored issues are related both to the language characteristics as well as to the machine translation process and, although related, are going beyond typical translation error classes. It is shown that the main advantage of the NMT system consists of better handling of verbs, English noun collocations, German compound words, phrase structure as well as articles. In addition, it is shown that the main obstacles for the NMT system are prepositions, translation of English (source) ambiguous words and generating English (target) continuous tenses. Although in total there are less issues for the NMT system than for the PBMT system, many of them are complementary – only about one third of the sentences deals with the same issues, and for about 40% of the sentences the issues are completely different. This means that combination/hybridisation of the NMT and PBMT approaches is a promising direction for improving both types of systems.
Nedeljka Ivković, Đorđe Božović, Maja Račić, Dijana Popović-Grubač and Brankica Davidović
Stress is defined as a state in which homeostasis, as a dynamic balance of internal conditions necessary for the proper functioning of cells or the living organism as a whole, is affected by the action of various stressors. Stress reaction occurs as a result of stress system activities, which is located in the central and peripheral nervous system. Stress evaluation involves a qualitative and quantitative analyses and valuation of certain biologically active substances (biomarkers of stress) in body fluids that are so often associated with stress. Saliva as a diagnostic medium is being increasingly used for purposes of clinical and basic research because of its composition and content as well as the advantages of the process of sampling, as compared to traditional methods of collecting blood samples and urine samples. Cortisol, as a biomarker of stress, is the most often studied salivary biomarker, which is associated with the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. Since stress leads to the suppression of the immune system, values of salivary secretory IgA and salivary lysozyme, as biomarkers of stress, can be analyzed. In saliva, it is difficult to monitor acute stress parameters, catecholamines, due to their low concentrations, rapid degradation and instability in the samples. Chromogranin A (CgA) and α-amylase enzyme can be used as alternative indices of adrenergic activity during stress reactions, due to their stability in saliva and reliability of the obtained values.
Stress reaction and the diseases in whose pathogenesis it participates are yet another proof of the constant interaction of physical, psychological and social factors in health / disease
Vesna Martinovic-Vitanovic, Snezana Ostojic, Natasa Popovic, Maja Rakovic and Vladimir Kalafatic
Detailed limnological study of the Lake Srebrno (Serbia) bottom fauna was performed in March 2007. Investigations included qualitative, quantitative, and saprobiological analysis of bottom fauna communities, physical and chemical analysis of sediments and determination of chlorophyll a concentration, as well as saprobic and trophic status analyses. Samples were collected at eighteen sites distributed along a shoreline and in deeper sections of the lake. Twenty taxa from nine macroinvertebrate groups were recorded. Family Chironomidae had the biggest index of participation, the highest species diversity and the largest density of populations in benthocenoses of Lake Srebrno. Faunistic similarity between sites was estimated according to Sorensen’s Quotient of Similarity (QS). The majority of benthocenoses - 56% showed a medium level of faunistic similarity (QS = 21-60%), and 42% of benthocenoses showed a high level of faunistic similarity (QS = 61-100%). The classification of Lake Srebrno based on saprobic and trophic levels was assessed. Saprobic level was in the range from alpha-meso- to poly-alpha-mesosaprobity. The water quality of the lake ranged from class III and between IV and III class. Generally, Lake Srebrno had eutrophic status with the gradation to hypertrophy.
Dragan Djordjevic, Janko Pejovic, Maja Surbatovic, Jasna Jevdjic, Sonja Radakovic, Milic Veljovic, Aneta Peric, Tamara Andjelic and Nada Popovic
Background: Severe sepsis and/or trauma complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome are the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. The aim of this prospective single-centre study was to assess the prognostic value and daily trend of interleukin-6 (IL-6), neutrophil CD64 expression, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe trauma and/or severe sepsis. Outcome measure was hospital mortality.
Methods: One hundred and two critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a tertiary university hospital were enrolled in this prospective study. Blood samples were collected on admission (day 1), days 2 and 3.
Results: CD64 index was 1.6-fold higher on day 1 and 1.78-fold higher on day 2 in non-survivors (p<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for the CD64 index on day 1 for outcome was 0.727. At a cut-off level of 2.80 sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 65%. Patients with CD64 index level on day 1 higher than 2.80 had 2.4-fold higher probability of dying. Odds ratio is 2.40; 95% CI 0.60–9.67.
Conclusions: CD64 index on day 1 is a fairly good predictor of outcome. AUCs for IL-6, CRP and LBP were < 0.55, suggesting these biomarkers failed to predict outcome.
Mihelić Damir, Smodlaka Hrvoje, Tkalčić Suzana, Palmer Lauren, Mršić Gordan, Špiranec Katarina, Špoljarić Daniel, Popović Maja and Mihelić Draga
The lumbosacral plexus was investigated in the California sea lion and Northern elephant seal. In 9 California sea lions and 2 Northern elephant seals the femoral nerve rises from the ventral branches of the 3rd and 4th lumbar nerves, whilst in one male and two specimens of the Northern elephant seal the 5th lumbar nerve was also involved. Ventral branches of the 3rd and 4th lumbar nerves comprised the obturatorius nerve in 7 specimens; in 3 specimens the 5th lumbar nerve additionally supplements the obturatorius nerve. In Northern elephant seals the obturatorius nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 3rd, 4th and 5th lumbar nerves. The ischiadic nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 4th, 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerves in 8 specimens California sea lions and in 2 North elephant seals. In 2 specimens of both species the 2nd sacral nerve also participates. The gluteal nerve created ventral branches of the 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerves in three specimens; however in one specimen the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves gave rise to the same nerve in the Northern elephant seal. In California sea lions the gluteal nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 5th lumbar nerve in seven specimens, nonetheless in 3 specimens the 4th lumbar nerve also participates in its formation.
Branimira Špoljarić, Maja Popović, Josip Crnjac, Zrinka Žderić Savatović, Martina Ratko, Mateja Lozančić, Matea Jurak, Igor Špoljarić, Daniel Špoljarić and Gordan Mršić
Animal hairs are an apt surface for retention of forensic trace epithelial samples. The aim of this study was threefold: to evaluate different methods of sample collection (moistened and dry swabs) and DNA extraction (Chelex® 100 method, Qiagen EZ1® DNA Investigator Kit), as well as to examine the morphological differences of hair fibres between two species (dog, sheep) and their ultimate impact on sample collection and processing. Our preliminary findings suggest that the use of EZ1® DNA Investigator Kit yields donor DNA profiles of higher quality. The results of different sample collection methods have shown intraspecific variations that require further investigation. The ability of retention and subsequent extraction of trace DNA appears to be similar between the two species, despite significant morphological differences between their coat hairs.
The aim of our study was to stablish the possible alternations in fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in rats on a standard and high-fat diet supplemented with buckwheat leaf and flower mixture (BLF) and subsequent possible beneficial effects of BLF. Four months old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups fed a standard diet, standard diet supplemented with 5% BLF, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with full-period (13 weeks) of 5% BLF supplementation and high-fat diet with partial-period (7 weeks) of 5% BLF supplementation. Gas-liquid chromatography was performed to analyze the fatty acids in hexane lipid extracts of whole rat brains.
Supplementation with BLF did not induce significant changes in fatty acid composition of whole brain phospholipids in rats fed the standard diet. In rats on high-fat diet concomitant (full-period) BLF supplementation increased eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), total n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio, and decreased the percentage of oleic acid (18:1n-9) and estimated activity of Δ-9 desaturase. When BLF application was postponed (partial-period) in the case of developed hyperlipidemia, a decrease of stearic acid (18:0) accompanied with an increased estimated Δ-9 desaturase activity was observed. Regardless of BLF supplementation all high-fat diet-fed groups showed an elevated percentage of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA) and a reduced estimated Δ-6 desaturase activity.
BLF contributes to the maintenance of stable fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids and supports normal brain function in high-fat diet rats, with more positive effects when BLF was applied before hyperlipidemia developed. This could be the mode of buckwheat health beneficial effects on the brain.
Dragana Popovic, Katarina Lalic, Aleksandra Jotic, Tanja Milicic, Jelena Bogdanovic, Maja Đorđevic, Sanja Stankovic, Veljko Jeremic and Nebojsa M. Lalic
We analyzed cardiovascular inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6)), haemostatic (homocysteine) risk markers in lean and obese patients at admission and acute hyperglicemic crisis (AHC) resolving, involving diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS).
In that context, we included group A: N = 20 obese, B: N=20 lean patients with DKA; C: N = l0 obese, D: N=10 lean patients with HHS; E: N = 15 obese, F: N=15 lean controls. CRP IL-6, homocysteine were determined by ELISA.
Our results showed that CRP IL-6, and homocysteine levels decreased in all groups: (A: p<0.001; B: p<0.001, C: p<0.05; D: p<0.001 mg/L), (A: p<0.001 B: p<0.001, C: p<0.001, D: p<0.01 pg/mL), (A: p<0.001, B: p <0.001; C: p<0.05, D: p=0.001 μmol/L), respectively, at resolving AHC. However, CRP persisted higher (p<0.001, p<0.01), IL-6 lower (p<0.05, p<0.001), while homocysteine levels turned out to be similar to controls.
AHC is associated with increased inflammatory and hemostatic cardiovascular risk markers. Also, insulin therapy in AHC has had more pronounced favorable effect on IL-6 and homocystein than on CRP