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Open access

Kamila Mitrowska, Maja Antczak and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

A multiresidue method for the determination of seven nitroimidazoles and their hydroxy metabolites in milk was developed. Milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up on strong cation-exchange solid phase extraction cartridges. Evaporated to dryness first, the extracts obtained were then reconstituted in 0.1% formic acid and injected onto a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The separation of analytes was achieved on gradient mode using a C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. Multiple reaction monitoring mode was set for the MS/MS with positive electrospray ionisation. For quantification, the isotope dilution method was used with isotopically labeled analogues of the target analytes. The method was evaluated entirely in accordance with EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and all validation criteria were in the required ranges. The method can easily detect and confirm metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, ipronidazole, and their hydroxy metabolites below the recommended concentration level of 3 μg/kg. The decision limits and detection capabilities ranged from 0.11 μg/kg to 0.22 μg/kg and from 0.19 μg/kg to 0.37 μg/kg respectively. The overall recoveries were between 96.6% and 105.2% with a good coefficient of variation, less than 8.7% under within-laboratory reproducibility conditions.

Open access

Krystyna Pohorecka, Tomasz Kiljanek, Maja Antczak, Piotr Skubida, Piotr Semkiw and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

Introduction: Amitraz is a formamide exhibiting both acaricidal and insecticidal activity and is frequently used by beekeepers to protect honeybee colonies against Varroa destructor mites. The aim of this apiary trial was to evaluate the impact of honeybee colony fumigation with amitraz on the level of contamination of honey stored in combs.

Material and Methods: Experimental colonies were fumigated four times every four days with one tablet of Apiwarol per treatment. Honey was sampled from combs of brood chambers and combs of supers one day after each amitraz application and from harvested honey. Amitraz marker residues (as a total of amitraz and metabolites containing parts of molecules with properties specific to the 2,4-DMA group, expressed as amitraz) were evaluated in honey.

Results: All analysed samples were contaminated with amitraz metabolites. 2,4-DMA and DMPF were the most frequently determined compounds. The average concentration of amitraz marker residue in honey from groups where a smouldering tablet was located directly in beehives was significantly higher than that of residue in honey from groups with indirect smoke generation. No significant effect on the honey contamination deriving from the place where it was exposed to smoke (combs of brood chambers and supers) was noted. Amitraz marker residues exceeded the MRL in 10% of honey samples from combs.

Conclusion: Fumigation of beehives with amitraz results in contamination of honey stored in combs.

Open access

Wojciech Jerzy Pietroń, Wojciech Cybulski, Dorota Krasucka, Agata Mitura, Katarzyna Kos and Maja Antczak

Abstract

A fast and reliable method of liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection of sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole, and sulfamethoxazole in feedingstuffs was described. The method involves THE procedure of preparation of spiked samples, and extraction of sulphonamides from the matrix using a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile, followed by drying the extract and dissolving it in a phosphate buffer. The analysis uses octadecyl (C18) analytical column with UV detection at λ = 260 nm and a gradient programme of mobile phase composition. The analytical procedure has been successfully adopted and validated for quantitative determination of the sulfonamides in feedingstuff samples. Validation included sensitivity, specificity, linearity, repeatability, and intra-laboratory reproducibility. The mean recovery of sulfonamides was 84%, within the working range of 200-2000 mg/kg. Direct, simple sample preparation and HPLC-UV analysis allow the method to be successfully included in the scope of routine analyses. The presented results could be an answer to a need of simple and easy method for sulfonamide determination applicable in medicated feedingstuffs analysis.