The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of agricultural production and selected parameters of farms and data describing the flow of nutrients on the farms. An analysis model was developed for nitrogen management on farms specializing in livestock production. The study was conducted on 20 farms located in 12 municipalities of the Mazowieckie province in central Poland in 2009.2012. The model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis in accordance with the backward stepwise method. Based on the regression analysis, the farm parameters that did not determine the dependent variable were eliminated. In the end, there were 10 independent variables included in the model. The model indicates that the efficiency of nitrogen management, expressed in cereal units per 1 kg of nitrogen (CU·kg-1 N), is significantly affected by: crop rotation, the demand for purchasing animal feed, the intensity of livestock production, the nitrogen content of farmyard manure, the nitrogen doses applied in mineral and natural fertilizers, and nitrogen outflow from farms with the sale of plant and animal products. The developed model explains 70% of the variation in the coefficient of efficiency expressed in cereal units per 1 kg N.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.
The static fertilisation experiment conducted in Skierniewice (Central Poland) since 1923 investigates the effect of mineral fertilisation with lime (CaNPK) or without lime (NPK) on the accumulation and release of phosphorus in reference to phosphorus sorption properties in the sandy soil profile. In the case of application of same doses of mineral fertilisers, the content of total phosphorus was higher in NPK than CaNPK soil. Parameters related to sorption capacity and bonding energy from Langmuir and Freundlich model of P sorption were significantly lower in CaNPK than NPK soil profile. This was particularly caused by a lower content of poorly crystallised hydro(oxide) aluminium and iron forms in CaNPK than NPK soil. Higher content of oxide-extractable and bioavailable phosphorus extracted with double lactate solution, dissolved reactive phosphorus in water solution as well as degree of phosphorus saturation in the CaNPK soil profile suggests higher mobility and possibility of occurrence of losses of phosphorus from the profile of limed soil than from acidified soil. Therefore, management of phosphate fertilizers on permanently limed sandy soils requires the optimisation of phosphorus doses to a greater degree corresponding to the actual take-off of the element with crop. An additional finding of the study was evidence of the possibility of re-estimating contents of bioavailable phosphorus and, as a consequence, the degree of phosphorus saturation with Mehlich3 method in strongly acid soil receiving P mineral fertilisers, which can make it difficult to use the test for fertiliser recommendation.
This review assesses the adaptability and effectiveness of the basic practices to mitigate the N2O emissions from the arable land in the climate, soil and agricultural conditions of Poland. We have analyzed the decrease in the nitrogen-based fertilization, selection of the fertilizer nitrogen forms, use of biological inhibitors of nitrogen transformation in the soil, control of the acidic soil reaction, reduction in the natural fertilizers use and afforestation of the low productive soils. The challenge evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation practices lies in the inadequacy of the national data on N2O soil emissions in particular agrotechnical conditions. In Poland, circumstances that favor intensive N2O emissions from the arable soils occur uncommonly, as shows the analysis of the literature reporting on the country climate, soil and agricultural conditions alongside the N2O emissions from soils under various cultivation conditions. Consequently, the effectiveness of mitigation practices that relies on an extensification of plant production may be insufficient. It can be assumed that, at the doses of nitrogen fitting the nutritional needs of crops, the soil N2O emissions are low and do not meaningfully differ from the emissions from untreated soils (literature data point to limited N2O emission from arable soils treated with N doses of ≤150-200 kg N·ha-1). The effectiveness of the nitrogen fertilization reduction as an N2O emissions mitigation practice is restricted to intensive farming. A universal registry of the mineral and natural fertilization use could help identify the agricultural holdings with a potential for high N2O emission and foster a targeted application of mitigation practices. It is suggested that normalization and maintenance of the optimum (i.e. close to neutral) soil pH should become a more common practice of N2O emissions mitigation in Poland in view of the extent of arable soils acidification and the literature data that indicate elevated N2O emissions from acid soils. Application of urease and nitrification inhibitors alongside nitrogen fertilization can be considered an effective practice of N2O emissions mitigation. Owing to economic reasons the use of nitrogen fertilizers with such additives is currently limited to non-agricultural segments of plant production. Afforestation of the low productive soils offers an attractive opportunity for mitigation of N2O emissions. Whereas N2O emissions from forest soils are considerably lower compared with those from the arable ones, the literature indicates that no N2O emissions mitigation is attained through a conversion of arable land to agroforestry. Considering the current forest area of Poland (24.9% of the total area) and the plans to increase the afforestation rate (to 33% in 2050) the measurable effects of this mitigation practice will only be seen in a long-term perspective.
Besides identifying and excelling the mitigation practices the authors postulate a review of the algorithms employed by the National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE) for the calculation of the GHG emissions. Solutions applied by KOBiZE appear to address mainly the area - or population-related aspects and, to a much lesser degree, the actual N2O production. In this context, the effects of certain N2O emissions mitigation practices might be difficult to be taken into consideration. The application of national statistics of the use of mineral and natural fertilizers to the calculation of the N2O emissions from the arable soils might be questioned given that the N2O emissions are driven by the actual local N dose.
Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft). The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes) - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82%) would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.
Introduction. Ensuring proper conditions for the development of the masticatory organ of the child can prevent or reduce the incidence of malocclusion.
Aim. The study aimed to assess the knowledge of mothers on selected elements of early orthodontic prevention.
Material and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 234 pregnant women and women in childbirth from Lower Silesia, Lublin and Lubuskie voivodships. The survey included questions about demographics of mothers, such as age, place of residence, education level, and 10 questions on selected elements of early orthodontic prevention.
Results. The knowledge of mothers on the early orthodontic prevention is associated with the level of education and the place of residence - women with higher education and living in large cities have the greatest expertise in this field, although it is still inadequate in general population of women.
The aim of the study was to describe pollen morphology and its variability of four Linum species: L. perenne subsp. extraaxillare, L. hirsutum, L. flavum and L. austriacum, all derived from Poland, but occurring in few natural sites within the country. Light and scanning electron microscopy was used and statistical analyses of quantitative pollen traits were performed. All taxa shared pollen grains which were 3-zonocolpate, isopolar, radiosymmetric, spheroidal and medium to large in size. Grains were semitectate, with the sculptural elements of the exine as gemmae or clavae. Additionally, upper parts of gemmae and clavae had a microstriate pattern. Despite great similarity among the investigated Linum species in pollen morphology, distinguishing features were determined.
Probiotics are a group of microorganisms able to have a positive influence on a host organism when applied in adequate amounts. They are grouped either as: bacteria (mainly Lactobacillus spp and Bifidobacterium) or fungi (Saccharomyces boulardii). Recent studies have revealed many opportunities for their use in several fields of medicine, such as in: reducing the level of cholesterol in the body, cancer therapy, human immune system regulation, skin regeneration, pancreas necrosis, cirrhosis of liver treatment, regulation of post- antibiotic bowel function, constipation and digestive disorders in infants. Probiotics efficacy has also been demonstrated in oral cavity malfunctions. With the use of modern scientific methods, probiotics have the potential to become an important part of the daily diet and a natural drug supplementation in severe diseases.
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) requires collection of sufficient number of hematopoietic stem cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate efficacy of plerixafor used in patients with lymphoid malignancies failing conventional stem cell mobilization.
This was a prospective, non-interventional study. All consecutive patients (n = 109) treated with plerixafor in 11 centers were reported. The drug was used either in case of previous mobilization failure (n = 67) or interventionally, in case of insufficient CD34+ cell output during current mobilization (n = 42). Successful mobilization was defined as resulting in collection of ≥ 2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg for single autoHSCT or ≥ 4 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg for double procedure.
The overall rate of successful mobilization was 55% (55% for single and 56% for double autoHSCT). The median total number of collected CD34+ cells/kg was 2.4 (range, 0-11.5) for patients intended for a single transplantation while 4.0 (0.6-16.9) for double procedure. The number of circulating CD34+ cells increased after the use of plerixafor regardless of baseline values. The median fold increase was 3.3 (0.3-155). Data from this observational study confirm high efficacy of plerixafor used in routine clinical practice as salvage for patients with lymphoid malignancies failing conventional stem cell mobilization.