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Open access

Maria Kaczmarek and Magdalena Skrzypczak

Variation in biological status among Polish males and underlying socio-economic factors

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with biological status of Polish men. Data were collected during a cross-sectional survey carried out in Poznań and several localities in Western Poland, between 2000 and 2002. The sample consisted of 2509 men ranging from 30 to 90 years of age. Biological status was expressed in terms of functional-biological age (BA) computed as a composite z-score of 11 biomarkers according to the method proposed by Borkan and Norris [1980a], and physiological reserve index (PR) developed by Goffaux et al. [2005]. The average biological age profiles (BAP) were compared in several subgroups of participants. The subgroups were categorized based on demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics. It was found that values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, physical and emotional aging indicators and perceived satisfaction with life were significantly associated with most of the study factors, except for smoking habit and education level. The multivariate logistic regression models revealed that two factors, financial situation and physical activity, were significantly associated with the physiological reserve index estimation. The study confirmed the role of the socio-economic and lifestyle factors likely to play in men's biological status and aging rates.

Open access

Magdalena Skrzypczak, Anita Szwed, Romana Pawlińska-Chmara and Violetta Skrzypulec

Assessment of the BMI, WHR and W/Ht in pre- and postmenopausal women

The main goal of this study was to determine whether and how values of the BMI, WHR and W/Ht indicators change in pre- and postmenopausal women. The tested group consisted of 10,216 women aged 25-95 years. Data were collected during the national campaign "Fighting Obesity", organized by Hand-Prod Company between 2000-2002 across Poland, when adult women voluntarily filled in a questionnaire and participated in anthropometric measurements. The BMI, WHR and W/Ht values were calculated based on these measurements. The values of the BMI, WHR and W/Ht change with age. However, in each age group postmenopausal women have higher BMI, WHR and W/Ht than premenopausal women. Thus, the results obtained indicate that hormonal changes occurring in the climacterium period cause an increase in the analyzed index values. The BMI used herein is characterized by high accuracy in indicating obesity. Moreover, the WHR and W/Ht are also used as adiposity indicators, which may be useful in assessment of the risk of disease or death caused by hypertension, cardiac diseases, diabetes, or even cancers. However, they should not be used only in relation to obese women, because even a slight increase in visceral obesity, with body mass within normal limits, may contribute to unfavorable changes in the woman's metabolic profile, which in turn, may present a risk of illness.

Open access

Maria Kaczmarek and Magdalena Skrzypczak

Abstract

Self-rated health is an important measure of health status and outcomes and plays a significant role in the quality of life. The main purpose of the study was to estimate selected demographic and socio-economic factors associated with perceived health status among middle-aged Polish people. The sample being studied consisted of 5,776 women and 2,191 men aged 35-65 years, participants of two nation-wide cross-sectional surveys: the survey on middle-aged women’s health and quality of life (WOMID) and the survey on men’s health and quality of life, both conducted in 2000-2004. Participants were administered a gender-specific questionnaire on demographic, socio-economic status, lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health. The subjectively evaluated health status was then correlated with sex, age, marital status, place of residence, education level, financial situation, types of leisure time and the tobacco use. Data were processed using uni- and multivariate statistical procedures including the logistic regression models LOGITs and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). It was found that the perceived health status was associated with women’s and men’s age, and in women with their menopausal status. Women were likely to evaluate their health significantly worse than men. It was found that marital status, educational attainment and financial well-off were the factors significantly associated with perceived health status in both women and men. In concluding remarks it should be stated that the health perception of women and men in mid-life is significantly related to their socio-economic status.

Open access

Leszek Orlikowski, Magdalena Pļaszek, Adam Wojdyļa and Czesļaw Skrzypczak

First Notice of Phytophthora Aerial Blight and Crown Rot on Pansies in Poland

Phytophthora cactorum was detected on &9/10; of pansies showing yellowing of leaves and crown rot symptoms and constituted about 90% of isolates obtained. Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum, F. solani and Pythium ultimum were also isolated from diseased tissues. Using rhododendron leaves as the bait, P. cactorum was detected in pansy substratum as well as from soil under the mata. Isolates obtained from diseased plants, substratum and soil under mata colonized leaves, stem parts and roots of pansy. Necroses spread faster on organs inoculated with cultures from plants and substratum. Among 25 cultivars inoculated with P. cactorum, disease symptoms did not occur on 3 of them, whereas the fastest spread of necrotic spots (3.8 mm/24 hrs) was noticed on 3 cultivars. Isolates of P. cactorum from Begonia semperflorens and Malus domestica colonized leaf petioles of pansy with significantly faster spread when isolates from begonia and pansy were used for inoculation.

Open access

Magdalena Skrzypczak, Piotr Łaski, Urszula Czerniak and Witold Kycler

Do chronological age and selected socio-demographic factors affect quality of life in females with breast cancer?

The main aim of this study is to determine whether chronological age and selected socio-demographic factors affect quality of life in females with breast cancer. The sample group consisted of 145 females between 32.0 and 84.4 years of age, after radical surgery treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and undergoing hormonotherapy. The results indicate no significant differences between individuals varied by chronological age, and by place of residence. The time elapsed since the diagnosis was a significant differentiating factor in terms of the self-reported extent of positive emotions, cognitive problems and sexual functioning. Higher educated females were more inclined to social avoidance and more severely affected by fatigue - those with partners more so than single ones. The distress related to the disease and its treatment degrades the patients' quality of life so severely that other factors, such as socio-demographic, chronological age or period since diagnosis, do not play as an important role in a subjective evaluation of quality of life. One needs to be cognizant of the variety of coexisting factors, including psychological and characterological, that contribute to the quality of life evaluation.

Open access

Marek Babicz, Kinga Kropiwiec, Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza and Ewa Skrzypczak

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the meatiness of the Puławska pig carcass and selected physical and chemical parameters of pork offal. The study was conducted on a group of 50 porkers of the native Puławska breed, whose carcasses were classified into five classes: E, U, R, O, and P, covering 10 specimens each. Samples were collected from the tongue, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys, and the pH (pH45, pH24), percentage of free water and chemical composition (ash, fat, protein) were determined. To summarise the obtained results, it can be concluded that the increase of the meat content in carcass significantly and primarily affects the reduction of the offal’s weight and then the reduction of the pH45 as well as the increase of the free water content primarily in the kidney and the lungs. In the case of chemical composition an increase of the meatiness in the carcass affected the reduction of fat content in the kidneys, lungs, heart and liver. The liver and the heart were the offal with the greatest susceptibility to the effects of the carcass meatiness. In this offal the increase of the carcass meatiness significantly decreased the fat content and energy value, and also increased the ash and protein content. Offal from the studied meatiness classes of the pigs’ carcasses was characterised by adequate quality and suitability for processing.

Open access

Karolina Szulc, Sebastian Nowaczewski, Ewa Skrzypczak and Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of slaughter weight and sex on slaughter traits and meat quality of Zlotnicka Spotted x Duroc (ZS×D) hybrid fatteners. The material comprised 56 Zlotnicka Spotted × Duroc fatteners (28 barrows and 28 gilts) which were fattened to 245th day of life. Pigs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (n=16) <110 kg; Group II (n=23) ≥110 ≤120 kg, and Group III (n=17) >120 kg. The obtained results revealed influence of the final body weight on slaughter trait values with the exception of meatiness. Fatteners from the group with the highest weight were characterised by the thickest backfat as well as by the greatest height of the loin eye. Slaughter weight exerted a significant impact on protein content, water absorbability as well as on the pH of the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. As to the influence of sex on slaughter traits, it was found that gilts were characterised by smaller backfat thickness and higher carcass meatiness than barrows. On the other hand, no effect of the slaughter weight and sex on colour parameters and sensory quality of the LTL muscle was ascertained. All the examined parameters were at high level in all slaughter weight and sex groups. The obtained results suggest that the slaughter of ZS×D crossbreds in groups I and II exerts a beneficial influence on slaughter trait levels and, at the same time, allows maintenance of high meat quality.

Open access

Michał Dzięcioł, Thomas Scholbach, Ewa Stańczyk, Justyna Ostrowska, Wojciech Kinda, Magdalena Woźniak, Wojciech Atamaniuk, Piotr Skrzypczak, Wojciech Niżański, Andrzej Wieczorek, Jacob Scholbach and Zdzisław Kiełbowicz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of new software Pixel Flux (PXFX) for clinical evaluation of tissue perfusion in the field of reproduction in dogs. The experiment was performed on six adult Beagle dogs. Different organs and tissues of the animals were examined with the MyLab25 Gold ultrasound system. Blood flow in the ovary, testicle, prostate, the ramification of the penile artery, and the network of blood vessels of the pampiniform plexus were examined with the use of colour coded Doppler technique, and obtained data was evaluated with the PXFX software. The more objective digital evaluation of data obtained with colour Doppler sonography through the application of dynamic tissue perfusion measurements provides new opportunities for diagnosis, as well as continuous monitoring of the function of the examined tissues and organs. The use of PXFX software is strongly indicated as a tool in small animal practice as an additional method for evaluation of tissue perfusion, especially in the cases when other methods like pulsed wave Doppler techniques are difficult to be performed