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  • Author: Magdalena Rojewska x
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Stemness specificity of epithelial cells – application of cell and tissue technology in regenerative medicine

Abstract

Stem cells are cells that have the potential to replicate and/or differentiate, becoming any tissue. This process could be theoretically repeated indefinitely and can be used to create or fix damaged parts any organ. There are many in vivo factors that cause stem cells to replicate and differentiate. Many of these interactions and mechanisms are still unknown. In vitro models have been successful in inducing stem cells to differentiate into the desired lineage using controlled methods. Recently, epithelial tissue has been successfully created using scaffolds on which stem cells are grown in vitro and then transplanted into the host. This transition creates significant problems. This is because in vitro -grown stem cells or stem cell-derived tissues are created in an isolated environment where virtually every aspect can be monitored and controlled. In vivo monitoring and controlling is significantly more difficult for a plethora of reasons. Cells in the body are constantly exposed to many signals and molecules which affect them. Many of the mechanisms behind these interactions and reactions are known but many others are not. As the corpus of knowledge grows, stem cells become closer to being applied in a clinical setting. In this paper, we review the current evidence on stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine and some of the challenges this field faces.

Open access
Epithelium morphogenesis and oviduct development are regulated by significant increase of expression of genes after long-term in vitro primary culture – a microarray assays

Abstract

The correct oviductal development and morphogenesis of its epithelium are crucial factors influencing female fertility. Oviduct is involved in maintaining an optimal environment for gametes and preimplantation embryo development; secretory oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) synthesize components of oviductal fluid. Oviductal epithelium also participates in sperm binding and its hyperactivation. For better understanding of the genetic bases that underlay porcine oviductal development, OECs were isolated from porcine oviducts and established long-term primary culture. A microarray approach was utilized to determine the differentially expressed genes during specific time periods. Cells were harvested on day 7, 15 and 30 of in vitro primary culture and their RNA was isolated. Gene expression was analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. 48 differentially expressed genes belonging to “tube morphogenesis”, “tube development”, “morphogenesis of an epithelium”, “morphogenesis of branching structure” and “morphogenesis of branching epithelium” GO BP terms were selected, of which 10 most upregulated include BMP4, ARG1, SLIT2, FGFR1, DAB2, TNC, EPAS1, HHEX, ITGB3 and LOX. The results help to shed light on the porcine oviductal development and its epithelial morphogenesis, and show that after long-term culture the OECs still proliferate and maintain their tube forming properties.

Open access
Fatty Acids Related Genes Expression Undergo Substantial Changes in Porcine Oviductal Epithelial Cells During Long-Term Primary Culture

Abstract

The process of reproduction requires several factors, leading to successful fertilization of an oocyte by a single spermatozoon. One of them is the complete maturity of an oocyte, which is acquired during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Additionally, the oviduct, composed of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs), has a prominent influence on this event through sperm modification and supporting oocyte’s movement towards uterus. OECs were isolated from porcine oviducts. Cells were kept in primary in vitro culture for 30 days. After 24h and on days 7, 15 and 30 cells were harvested, and RNA was isolated. Transcript changes were analyzed using microarrays. Fatty acids biosynthetic process and fatty acids transport ontology groups were selected for analysis and described. Results of this study indicated that majority of genes in both ontology groups were up-regulated on day 7, 15 and 30 of primary in vitro culture. We analyzed genes involved in fatty acids biosynthetic process, including: GGT1, PTGES, INSIG1, SCD, ACSL3, FADS2, FADS1, ACSS2, ALOX5AP, ACADL, SYK, ACACA, HSD17B8, FADS3, OXSM, and transport, including: ABCC2, ACSL4, FABP3, PLA2G3, PPARA, SYK, PPARD, ACACA and P2RX7. Elevated levels of fatty acids in bovine and human oviducts are known to reduce proliferation capacity of OECs and promote inflammatory responses in their microenvironment. Most of measured genes could not be connected to reproductive events. However, the alterations in cellular proliferation, differentiation and genes expression during in vitro long-term culture were significant. Thus, we can treat them as putative markers of changes in OECs physiology.

Open access