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Open access

Elżbieta Wojciechowicz-Żytko, Barbara Rogowska, Maja Dobińska, Anna Witek and Magdalena Kulig

Abstract

The experiment was carried out in years 2012–2013 in the Collection of Ornamental Plants of the Agricultural University in Cracow. Six Iris taxa – Iris graminea L. and hybrids from Sibiriceae section: I. ‘Wisley White’, ‘Wiltrude Gissel’, ‘Violet Meer’, ‘White Swirl’, I. ‘Towanda Redflare’ × I. sibirica hybrid (RF × I SK) were observed. Each taxon was represented by five clumps. In weekly intervals from May to August, the insects: Mononychus punctumalbum (Hbst.), Phorbia servadei (Seguy), Oxythyrea funesta (Poda.) and Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze) were collected from the selected plants. The differences in infestation of different Iris taxa by pests were noted. The most infested by pests was the hybrid from Sibiriceae section I. ‘Wiltrud Gissel’ whereas hardly attacked species was Iris graminea. M. punctumalbum and P. servadei were the most frequently occurring insects. The adults of M. punctumalbum were observed in the greatest numbers on ‘Wiltrud Gissel’, ‘Violet Meer’ and RF × I SK hybrid. P. servadei larvae were most abundant in the buds of ‘Wiltrud Gissel’ and ‘Violet Meer’ O. funesta and A. nonstriata occurred in a small number whereas a common pest – A. newtoni – was not found.

Open access

Andrzej Polski, Karol Iwaniak, Karolina Sobotka-Polska, Magdalena Rogowska and Ewa Poleszak

Abstract

With the rapid development of computer technology, gaming has become more popular, and young people spend more and more time playing such games. It is thought that this a major factor responsible for the lowered physical activity of today's society. For a better understanding of the issue, we assessed how many students spend their free time playing video games, and how this form of recreation affects their levels of physical activity. The investigation of the relationship between physical activity and playing computer games was undertaken via a questionnaire containing 16 questions, and this was applied to a representative sample of 138 students drawn from Lublin’s universities. The results of this show that males are more physically active (85% compared to 75% women). However, only 9% men and 13% women train every day. To keep the body in shape, the most common activity for the respondents is aerobics training (approx. 30%), walking and cycling. Such exercise is performed to improve or keep in shape, and as a form of relaxation. However, one third of all respondents play video games, 70% of these are males and only 16% are females. What is more, our results show that there was no correlation between level of physical activity and gaming. In both groups, about 80% of all respondents are physically active. Yet, among the players, there are more overweight people (28%), as compared to 10% in the non-player group. Still, players, in contrast to popular opinion, are more active than non-playing people. No association was found between playing computer games and health problems.

Open access

Magdalena Rogowska, Karol Iwaniak, Andrzej Polski, Karolina Slawinska, Karolina Sobotka-Polska, Joanna Modrzewska and Ewa Poleszak

Abstract

Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min.), while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.). Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release).