Nitric oxide (NO) is a relatively novel messenger that plays a significant role in a wide range of physiological processes. Currently, it is known that, both, lack and excess of NO can cause diseases, thus a lot of substances have been discovered and utilized which can change the concentration of this molecule within the organism. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of currently used agents modulating the L-arginine:NO:cGMP pathway, as well as to summarize current understanding of their pharmacological profiles. Nowadays, most of these agents are employed particularly in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Further studies can hold promise for enhancing the therapeutic equipment for a variety of other impairments, such as osteoporosis, and also in treatments of the central nervous system.