Introduction. Respecting a child's need for physical activity is an extremely important factor that determines proper development of preschool children. To meet this demand children need approximately 6 hours (boys) or 5 hours and 15 minutes of activity (girls) . However, for many years we have seen serious neglect in terms of meeting children's need for physical activity and for staying outdoors. The aim of this study was to define to what extent the older preschool children's need for physical activity and staying outdoors was satisfied. Material and methods. An interview with parents and an observation technique were employed in the study. The obtained data were used to draw up an activity card that included activities undertaken by a child in a period of 24 hours. An assessment of physical activity consisted of highlighting movement activities on the card and noting their duration (in minutes). A proper classification was developed to determine to what degree the examined children's need for physical activity and staying outdoors was fulfilled. Results and
conclusions. Movement activities organised in a kindergarten are the basic form of physical activity of preschool children. It is the only form of physical activity for children whose needs are not fully met (slightly more than half of the children). Children with sufficient physical activity (every third child is exposed to the activity defined as satisfactory, while every tenth child's needs are fulfilled to a very good degree) undertake extra (spontaneous) activities such as outdoor games and plays as well as activities selected by adults. The research revealed that it is necessary to increase the duration of daily physical activities at home and at a kindergarten and to hold outdoor games and plays more frequently.
The Shape of Anterior-Posterior Curvatures of the Spine in Athletes Practising Selected Sports
Introduction. Practising sport at the professional level brings about considerable spinal loads. As a result of an intensive effort, the adaptation abilities of vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ligaments and muscles decrease, which, in turn, influences the size of physiological curvatures of the spine and at the same time the quality of body posture. The aim of the work was to evaluate the shape of anterior-posterior curvatures of the spine and to define the frequency of occurrence of body posture types in athletes practising selected sports. Material and methods. The research was conducted among 46 athletes from the following sections: athletics, handball, volleyball and taekwondo. Inclination angles of the curvatures of the spine were defined with the use of a posturometer: α angle (upper-thoracic segment), β angle (thoracic-lumbar segment), γ angle (lumbar-sacral segment) as well as the level of thoracic kyphosis (χ) and lumbar lordosis (λ). Every athlete's body posture type was defined. Results. It was revealed that in the shape of anterior-posterior curvatures of the spine in the examined athletes the level of thoracic kyphosis was higher than the level of lumbar lordosis. In all the athletes the biggest values were observed in the inclination of the upper-thoracic segment, whereas the lowest ones (except for taekwondo competitors) in the inclination of the lumbar-sacral segment. The most common types of body posture were kyphotic and balanced types. No type-III kyphosis and type-III lordosis were observed. Athletes practising selected sports generally had a proper body posture. An improper posture, especially a wrong posture, was observed in few athletes. Conclusion. The specificity of movements performed during the training applied in a particular sport may influence the shape of anterior-posterior curvatures of the spine and thus the type of body posture.
Introduction. Physical activity is fundamental to children's all-round development in the first six years of their life. It is particularly significant in preschool age, when the need for movement is predominant. Psychomotor development, conditioned by children's innate abilities and their own activity, depends upon the influence of external surroundings as well as parental upbringing and preschool education. The aim of the study was to obtain data regarding physical activity (both structured and unstructured) of children during their stay in a kindergarten. Material and methods. The study was conducted in five state kindergartens situated in four main housing estates of Bia³a Podlaska. It included 11 groups of older preschool children. It was a diagnostic study. A diagnostic poll method employed in the study included interviews with teachers, lesson observations (during one day) and document analyses (programmes and class registers). Results. During their stay in a kindergarten children take part in physical activities for 1.5 hours a day. During this period they participate in obligatory forms of physical activity such as morning gymnastics, movement plays, outdoor activities and gymnastic exercises. Furthermore, optional movement activities are organised in kindergartens (different forms in different kindergartens). Such extra classes enable children to be physically active for over two more hours per week. Conclusions. In terms of caring about health and motor development of children, not all elements of preschool education programmes are fully realised. Training sessions, workshops and lectures showing diverse forms of physical activity for children ought to be organised for preschool teachers.
Introduction. The human foot is an important and individual static-dynamic part of the movement apparatus. Physical activity is one of the many factors which has an impact on the arch of the foot, and specific sporting disciplines affect the morphological construction and active efficiency of the foot to differing degrees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot-arches of competitors training in the disciplines of athletics, handball, volleyball and taekwon-do, and to demonstrate the differences in the arching of the foot, depending on the discipline of the participant. Material and methods. Observation of a group of 46 student-competitors at the sports club of the Academic Sports Association (ASA) of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska, training in handball, volleyball, athletics and taekwon-do. Using information from plantograms, obtained using a podoscope, the following were analyzed: Wejsflog's indicator, the position of the big toe (hallux) - angle γ; theposition of toe V - angle β;the position of the heel - angle α. Results. The values given by Wejsflog's indicator show the presence of an asymmetry in the arch of the right foot compared to that of the left foot. The reason for this, according to Demczuk-Włodarczyk and Biec  may be the type of surface on which training is conducted. The authors demonstrate that fallen arches are less common in practitioners of taekwon-do, who usually train on an elastic mat, which confirms the results of earlier research conducted on competitors at the Academic Sports Association of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska. Conclusions. The occurrence of an abnormal formation of the arches that make up the arch of the foot, and of asymmetry in the arch between the left and right feet observed in the sample, shows the necessity of devoting greater attention to compensatory exercises that strengthen the short muscles of the foot and the muscles of the calf in the training process, in order to make up for frequently unbalanced strain.